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Peripheral Nervous System A. Sensory Receptors 1. Properties of receptors A) all receptors are transducers 1) they convert one form of stimulus into nerve.

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Presentation on theme: "Peripheral Nervous System A. Sensory Receptors 1. Properties of receptors A) all receptors are transducers 1) they convert one form of stimulus into nerve."— Presentation transcript:

1 Peripheral Nervous System A. Sensory Receptors 1. Properties of receptors A) all receptors are transducers 1) they convert one form of stimulus into nerve energy B) all receptors transmit 4 kinds of information to the CNS

2 Peripheral Nervous System 1) Modality – the type of sensation a) Law of Specific Nerve Energies – a receptor can respond to many types of stimuli but conveys only one sensation 2) Location 3) Intensity 4) Duration a) some receptors experience adaptation

3 Peripheral Nervous System i) prolonged stimulus leads to a decreased firing by the receptor 2. Sensory receptors are classified on the basis of location and type of stimulation A) Location 1) Exteroceptors – stimulation arising outside of the body (examples: touch, pain, pressure, and external temperature)

4 Peripheral Nervous System 2) Interoceptors – stimulation arising inside of the body (examples: chemical levels, stretching of tissues, and internal temperature) 3) Proprioceptors – respond to internal stimuli but located only in skeletal muscle, tendons, joints, ligaments, and connective tissue covering bones and muscles a) monitor stretch and body position

5 Peripheral Nervous System B) Type of stimulus detected 1) Mechanoreceptors – touch & pressure, hearing & equilibrium 2) Thermoreceptors – temperature changes 3) Photoreceptors – light 4) Chemoreceptors – smell, taste, and blood chemicals 5) Baroreceptors – stretch (blood pressure) 6) Nociceptors (free nerve ending) – pain

6 Peripheral Nervous System 3. General sensory receptors A) Unencapsulated – bare dendrites 1) Free dendritic endings a) found in most body tissues b) respond primarily to pain and temperature 2) Merkel discs a) in the basal layers of the epidermis b) respond to touch

7 Peripheral Nervous System 3) Root hair plexus a) nerve endings that surround hair follicles b) respond to touch B) Encapsulated – enclosed in a connective tissue capsule 1) Meissner’s corpuscles a) located in the dermal papillae region of hairless skin (ex: nipples, external genitalia, fingertips, soles of feet, and eyelids) b) respond to touch

8 Peripheral Nervous System 2) Pacinian corpuscles a) found in the subcutaneous layer of skin, periosteum, mesenteries, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules, fingertips, soles of feet, and external genitalia b) respond to vibration and pressure

9 Peripheral Nervous System 3) Ruffini’s corpuscles a) located deep in the dermis & subcutaneous layers and in the joint capsules b) respond to pressure and tendon stretch 4) Muscle spindles a) found throughout the perimysium of skeletal muscle b) respond to muscle stretch and they initiate the stretch reflex

10 Peripheral Nervous System 5) Krause’s end bulbs a) found in connective tissue and mucosa (ex: mouth and conjunctiva of the eye) and hairless skin near body openings (i.e. lips) b) respond to touch 6) Golgi tendon organs a) found in tendons b) respond to muscle and tendon stretch

11 Peripheral Nervous System C) Special Sense Receptors 1) separate cells which synapse with sensory neurons 2) involved with all special senses except smell (olfaction)

12 Peripheral Nervous System 4. Receptor Responses to Stimulus A) Generator potentials 1) seen in unencapsulated, encapsulated, and olfactory receptors 2) adequate stimulation of the receptor causes an impulse directly on the sensory neuron

13 Peripheral Nervous System B. Receptor potentials 1. seen in special sense receptors (except olfactory) 2. adequate stimulation causes a receptor potential on the receptor resulting in the release of a neurotransmitter 3. the neurotransmitter then causes a EPSP on the sensory neuron

14 Peripheral Nervous System C. Nerves 1. Nerves consist of parallel bundles of axons enclosed by connective tissue coverings A) Endoneurium – surrounds individual axons (fibers); found surrounding the myelin sheath if one is present

15 Peripheral Nervous System B) Perineurium – surrounds groups of fibers bound into bundles called fascicles C) Epineurium – surrounds all the fascicles; binds them together to form a single nerve

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17 Peripheral Nervous System 2. Direction of transmission A) Mixed nerves 1) transmits impulses to and from the CNS B) Sensory (afferent) nerves 1) only transmit impulses towards the CNS C) Motor (efferent) nerves 1) only transmit impulses away from the CNS

18 Peripheral Nervous System 3. All peripheral nerves are classified as Cranial or Spinal A) Cranial nerves – 12 pairs *refer to handout*

19 Nerve Sensory Function Motor Function Olfactory (I)Smell (Olfaction)None Optic (II)VisionNone Occulomotor (III)None Controls 4 of 6 external eye muscles (SR, IR, MR, IO) Trochlear (IV)Proprioception Controls superior oblique eye muscle Trigeminal (V) - main sensory nerve of face - 3 subdivisions V 1 (Opthalamic) – anterior scalp, upper eye lid, nose, nasal cavity, & cornea None V 2 (Maxillary) – palate, upper teeth, skin of cheek, upper lip, & lower eyelid None V 3 (Mandibular) – anterior tongue, lower teeth, chin, & lateral scalp Muscles of mastication (chewing)

20 Abducens (VI)Proprioception Controls lateral rectus eye muscle Facial (VII) - 5 divisions; temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular & cervical Taste sensations from anterior 2/3 of the tongue Facial expression and the secretion of saliva and tears Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Vestibular branch – equilibrium Cochlear branch - hearing None Glossopharyngeal (IX) Taste sensations from posterior 1/3 of the tongue Swallowing and the secretion of saliva Vagus (X) Parasympathetic fibers running to and from heart, lungs, & abdominal viscera Sensations from the innervated structures Slows heart rate, increases peristalsis, & contracts muscles of voice production Accessory (XI)Proprioception Movements of the head & shoulders and speech production Hypoglossal (XII)Proprioception Tongue movements in chewing, food mixing, & speech

21 Peripheral Nervous System B) Spinal nerves – 31 pairs 1) Terminology a) Rami – small branches of spinal nerves i) both sensory & motor fibers (mixed) ii) Dorsal rami (a) innervate deep muscles and skin of the dorsal surface of the trunk

22 Peripheral Nervous System iii) Ventral rami (a) innervate structures of the upper and lower limbs and the lateral and ventral trunk iv) Rami communicantes (a) only seen emerging from thoracic spinal nerves (b) contain autonomic nerve fibers

23 Peripheral Nervous System v) Meningeal branch (a) innervate blood vessels of the spinal cord and meninges b) Plexus – intertwining of several ventral rami

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26 Peripheral Nervous System 2) Cervical Nerves (8 pairs) a) Cervical plexus i) Mostly cutaneous nerves that innervate the skin ii) A few innervate muscles of the anterior neck iii) Phrenic nerve is the most important (a) innervates the diaphragm for breathing

27 Peripheral Nervous System b) Brachial plexus i) Formed from the intermixing of the cervical nerves C 5 -C 8 ii) Give rise to virtually all the nerves that innervate the arms (ex. brachial, radial & ulnar nerves) 3) Thoracic Nerves (12 pairs) a) Form the intercostal nerves i) innervate the intercostal muscles

28 Peripheral Nervous System 4) Lumbar Nerves (5 pairs) a) The lumbar plexus arises from nerves L1-L4 b) The femoral nerve is the largest terminal nerve of this plexus i) innervates the muscles of the anteriomedial thigh 5) Sacral Nerves (5 pairs) a) The sacral plexus arises from nerves L4-S4

29 Peripheral Nervous System b) The largest branch of the sacral plexus is the sciatic nerve i) innervates entire leg except the anteromedial thigh ii) the thickest and longest nerve in the body 6) Coccygeal Nerves (1 pair) a) innervates the coccyx

30 Peripheral Nervous System D. Reflex and Reflex Arc 1. Reflex A) a rapid, predictable motor response to a stimulus B) usually serves a protective function 2. Five components of a reflex arc: A) Receptor B) Sensory neuron

31 Peripheral Nervous System C) Integration Center 1) Monosynaptic reflex (single sensory & motor neuron) 2) Polysynaptic reflex (multiple interneurons) D) Motor neuron E) Effector

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33 Peripheral Nervous System 3. Reflexes are classified as: A) Somatic reflexes 1) activate/inhibit skeletal muscle B) Autonomic (visceral) reflexes 1) activate/inhibit cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or glands


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