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Muscles & Movement Movement Studies 2011-2012 Movement Studies 2011/12 Adapted from 2010 slides produced by LS & SN.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscles & Movement Movement Studies 2011-2012 Movement Studies 2011/12 Adapted from 2010 slides produced by LS & SN."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscles & Movement Movement Studies 2011-2012 Movement Studies 2011/12 Adapted from 2010 slides produced by LS & SN

2 Class conduct - practical labs University of Hertfordshire MS 2011/12

3 Learning Outcomes Describe the different types of muscle attachment Explain how muscles can contribute to movement and stability Perform movement analyses in terms of: ◦ the functional relationship of relevant muscles ◦ the type of muscle contraction ◦ the ‘range’ a muscle is working in/through Movement Studies 2011/12

4 Muscles What are the functions of muscle within the body? Movement Studies 2011/12

5 Skeletal Muscle Are all skeletal muscles the same shape? Parallel – fascicles parallel to long axis (cylindrical/spindle or flat bands/straps) Convergent – fibres are spread out & converge at common attachment Unipennate – (feather) fascicles form a common angle with tendon (less tendon mvt, stronger) Bipennate - fasicles on both sides of tendon Multipennate- tendon branches in muscle belly Circular - or sphincter, (diameter opens/closes) Movement Studies 2011/12

6 Muscle Palpation Palpate the following muscles on yourselves and try and determine what they feel like Are they the same shape/thickness? Movement Studies 2011/12

7 a c bd e

8 Muscular Attachments Going back to our muscle examples what do you think they attach to? Movement Studies 2011/12

9 Muscular Attachments 1. Tendons E.g. Achilles tendon E.g. Biceps tendon Movement Studies 2011/12

10 Muscular Attachments II. Aponeuroses Sheets of collagen- connective tissue providing muscular attachment E.g. External Oblique Movement Studies 2011/12

11 Muscular Attachments III. Deep Fascia Compact collagen fibres More uniform direction E.g Tensor fascia latae Movement Studies 2011/12

12 Muscle Action For each of the joints: name the key muscle groups which perform the movements at that joint identify their approximate location (try to give an example) e.g. the hip flexors are located on the anterior surface of the hip joint and thigh and include iliopsoas  Hip  Knee  Ankle  Shoulder  Elbow & Forearm  Wrist Movement Studies 2011/12

13 Hip ◦ flexors, extensors, ◦ abductors, adductors, ◦ rotators (int/ext = med/lat) Knee ◦ flexors, extensors Ankle ◦ dorsiflexors, plantarflexors, ◦ Invertors, evertors Shoulder ◦ flexors, extensors, ◦ abductors, adductors, ◦ rotators (int/ext = med/lat) Elbow ◦ flexors, extensors Forearm ◦ Pronators, supinators Wrist ◦ flexors, extensors, deviators (rad/ulnar dev)

14 Muscle Activity What happens to a muscle when it is activated? Does it….. Shorten? Lengthen? Stay the same? Movement Studies 2011/12

15 Inner range Outer range

16 Concentric Muscle tension exceeds resistance and it shortens the muscle Speed of muscle fibre shortening, depends on resistance Movement Studies 2011/12

17 Eccentric Muscle tension is less than the resistance causing the muscle to lengthen whilst working Tension developed is less than the resistance Movement Studies 2011/12

18 Isometric Muscle does not change in length Tension produced never exceeds resistance Which muscle group is working hardest in this example? Movement Studies 2011/12

19 Muscle Contraction Why are there different types of muscle contraction? Straighten your leg while sitting: Which muscles are working? ◦ What sort of muscle work is occurring in the quadriceps and hamstrings? ◦ Where might isometric muscle contraction be happening? Movement Studies 2011/12

20 Analysis of Movement Movement Studies 2011/12 Look at each other taking a slow step forwards - Analyse the movement in terms of: ◦ Identifying the main muscles working at the hip and knee during the step ◦ Identifying the type of contraction in each muscle group i.e. concentric, eccentric, or isometric

21 Group Action of Muscles Muscles work in groups not singly A number of muscles are active during any movement It is this group action which results in co- ordinated movement Muscles can be divided by function into prime movers/agonists, antagonists or fixators Movement Studies 2011/12

22 Functional muscle groups Prime mover/agonist A muscle or muscle group which contracts to bring about movement Antagonists A muscle or muscle group which opposes the prime mover and relaxes and lengthens progressively to control movement Fixators / Stabilisers Muscle works to steady a bone as a steady base /origin from which the of the agonist /prime mover acts Synergists muscle acts simultaneously with one or more muscles to produce a movement “act together” ◦ true or helper synergists Movement Studies 2011/12

23 Muscle Range Movement Studies 2011/12 ‘Musculoskeletal Assessment’ Clarkson

24 Ranges of biceps muscle work Start with your hand on your shoulder? Where in range is your biceps muscle? Take your arm back out to 90º now where in range are your biceps? Now straighten fully – where in range are your biceps Movement Studies 2011/12

25 Ranges of iliopsoas* muscle work Iliacus and psoas major work together functionally  iliopsoas Sit on a plinth—where in range is your iliopsoas? Lean forwards—where in range is your iliopsoas? Stand up and straighten fully—where in range is your iliopsoas? Movement Studies 2011/12

26 IMPORTANCE OF MUSCLE RANGE Why is it important to know where in range a muscle is working? Inner range – often weak Middle range – often used for muscle testing Movement Studies 2011/12

27 Tasks There are four tasks for you to work through Divide into 5 groups Use the texts available Movement Studies 2011/12

28 Task 1 Standing to sitting: Which lower limb muscle group is predominant in producing this movement? How would you describe the type of muscle contraction in this muscle group? What is the function of this muscle group? In which range is the muscle group contracting at the start of the movement? Movement Studies 2011/12

29 Task 2 Stand on your left leg and flex your right knee Which muscle group produces knee flexion? Which muscle group is working as an antagonist? What type of muscle contraction describes the right iliopsoas activity? How would you classify the iliopsoas function in this case? Movement Studies 2011/12

30 Task 3 In standing raise your right foot on to a small step. In which range are the quadriceps working the knee? In which range are the hamstrings working at the knee? Where in range do the quadriceps exert the greatest force? Which muscles are working as stabilisers? Movement Studies 2011/12

31 Task 4 During a normal gait cycle look at dorsiflexion of the ankle Where in range do the dorsiflexors contract concentrically? Classify the type/s of contraction and function of the dorsiflexors that occur during the cycle? Movement Studies 2011/12

32 Muscle Assessment Physios assess muscles for strength, length and control – these skills will be taught in NMS1 One means of grading muscle power is the Oxford or MRC grading scale Movement Studies 2011/12

33 Oxford/MRC grading scale GradeMuscle Activity 0No contraction 1Flicker / trace contraction 2Active movement with gravity eliminated through full range 3Active movement against gravity through full range 4Active movement against gravity and resistance through full range 5Normal power through full range Movement Studies 2011/12

34 Conclusion Make sure you are happy that the learning outcomes have been met Familiarise yourself with the main muscles of the hip and knee and how their attachments vary – relate this to their function Use your bones to determine where the muscles attach Movement Studies 2011/12

35 Resources See Learning Support Pack  pp 4-5 Movement Studies 2011/12

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