Presentation on theme: " Kinesiology is the study of muscular activity and the resulting movement of body parts. Ergonomics is the study of human factors that affect the design."— Presentation transcript:
Kinesiology is the study of muscular activity and the resulting movement of body parts. Ergonomics is the study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment. This term is also applied to the design of sports equipment
Orthopedic Surgeon – treats injuries and disorders involving bones, joints, muscles, and tendons. Rheumatologist – treats disorders that involve the inflammation of connective tissues including muscles. Neurologist – treats the cause of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function. Sports Medicine Specialist – treats sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles
Fibers, fascia, and tendons ◦ Fasciitis – inflammation of a fascia ◦ Tenalgia – pain in a tendon ◦ tendinitis
Muscles ◦ Adhesions – band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. May form as the result of injury or surgery. Scar tissue. ◦ Atrophy – weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue. ◦ Myalgia – muscle tenderness or pain ◦ Myolysis – break down or degeneration of muscle tissue ◦ Myositis – inflammation of muscle tissue ◦ Polymyositis – chronic, progressive disease ◦ Myomalacia
◦ Myorrhexis – rupture of a muscle ◦ Myosclerosis ◦ Hernia Myocele – protrusion of a muscle through its ruptured sheath or fascia Muscle tone ◦ Atonic-lack of normal muscle tone ◦ Dystonia – condition of abnormal muscle tone ◦ Hypertonia ◦ Hypotonia ◦ Myotonia – delayed relaxation of a muscle after a strong contraction
◦ Spasm – cramp – sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a muscle or a muscle group. ◦ Spasmodic torticollis-aka wryneck – a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles Muscle function ◦ Bradykinesia – extreme slowness in movement ◦ Dyskinesia ◦ Hyperkinesia – abnormally increased motor function ◦ Hypokinesia – abnormally decreased motor function ◦ Tardive dyskinesia – side effect of long-term treatment with certain antipsychotic drugs.
Voluntary muscle movement ◦ Ataxia – inability to coordinate the muscles ◦ Dystaxia – aka partial ataxia – difficulty in controlling voluntary movement, coordination ◦ Contracture – abnormal shortening of muscle tissues ◦ Intermittent claudication – multiple symptoms including cramp like pain of the leg muscles caused by poor circulation.
Myoclonus ◦ Nocturnal myoclonus – jerking of limbs that may occur normally as a person is falling asleep. ◦ Singultus – hiccups. Spasm of the diaphragm Myasthenia – muscle weakness ◦ Myasthenia gravis – MG – chronic autoimmune disease in which there is an abnormality in the neuromuscular function causing episodes of muscle weakness.
Fibromyalgia – FMS – chronic disorder of unknown cause. Characterized by widespread aching pain, tender points, and fatigue.
Repetitive stress disorders ◦ Ergonomics – the study of human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment. Overuse injuries Myofascial damage – tenderness and swelling of the muscles and their surrounding tissues. Carpal tunnel syndrome – occurs when the tendons passing through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen.
Epicondylitis – inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow ◦ Lateral – tennis elbow ◦ Medial – golfer’s elbow Rotator cuff injuries – affect the shoulder ◦ Impingement syndrome ◦ Calcium deposits ◦ Rotator cuff tendinitis Cervical radiculopathy-nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region Plantar fasciitis
Paralysis – loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements. Plegia – means paralysis ◦ Paraplegia –both legs and lower body ◦ Quadriplegia – all four extremities ◦ Hemiplegia – one side of the body. Paresis – partial or incomplete paralysis
◦ Fascia Fasciotomy Fascioplasty ◦ Tendons Carpal tunnel release Tenectomy Tenodesis-to suture the ends of a tendon to bone Tenolysis –to free a tendon from adhesions Tenonectomy - surgical removal of part of tendon Tenotomy – surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity
◦ Tendons cont Tenoplasty Tenorraphy ◦ Muscles Myectomy – surgical removal of a portion of a muscle Myoplasty – surgical repair of a muscle Myorrhaphy – to suture a muscle wound