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Integrative Approaches to Optimum Performance Geoff Lecovin M.S., D.C., N.D., L.Ac., CSCS.

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Presentation on theme: "Integrative Approaches to Optimum Performance Geoff Lecovin M.S., D.C., N.D., L.Ac., CSCS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrative Approaches to Optimum Performance Geoff Lecovin M.S., D.C., N.D., L.Ac., CSCS

2 Geoff Lecovin, DC, ND, L.Ac, CSCS In private practice for over 18 years In private practice for over 18 years Chiropractor (1990) Chiropractor (1990) Naturopathic Physician and Acupuncturist (1994) Naturopathic Physician and Acupuncturist (1994) Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist (NSCA, 2005) Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist (NSCA, 2005) Corrective Exercise Specialist (NASM, 2006) Corrective Exercise Specialist (NASM, 2006) Performance Enhancement Specialist (NASM, 2006) Performance Enhancement Specialist (NASM, 2006)

3 Integrative Components of Optimum Performance Structural Psychological Biochemical

4 Psychological (visualization and Intention) *When you visualize yourself performing an activity, you are in turn physiologically creating neural patterns in your brain, just as if you had physically performed the action. *When you visualize yourself performing an activity, you are in turn physiologically creating neural patterns in your brain, just as if you had physically performed the action. *These patterns are similar to small tracks engraved in the brain cells from physically rehearsing an activity *These patterns are similar to small tracks engraved in the brain cells from physically rehearsing an activity *Mental imagery is intended to train our minds and create the neural patterns in our brain to teach our neuromusculoskeletal system to do exactly what we want it to do. *Mental imagery is intended to train our minds and create the neural patterns in our brain to teach our neuromusculoskeletal system to do exactly what we want it to do. *Ultimately, an athlete can enhance their performance physically by simply mentally practicing the activity. *Ultimately, an athlete can enhance their performance physically by simply mentally practicing the activity. * The more emotion and intention, the more effective the results * The more emotion and intention, the more effective the results

5 Effects of Visualization on the Free-throw Performance of Basketball Players." University of Chicago Athletes were tested to determine their free-throw proficiency and then randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. Athletes were tested to determine their free-throw proficiency and then randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. The first went to the gym every day for one hour and practiced throwing free throws. The first went to the gym every day for one hour and practiced throwing free throws. The second group also went to the gym, but instead of physically practicing, they lay down and simply visualized themselves successfully shooting. The second group also went to the gym, but instead of physically practicing, they lay down and simply visualized themselves successfully shooting. The third group did nothing The third group did nothing At the end of 30 days, the three groups were re-tested At the end of 30 days, the three groups were re-tested The players who hadn't practiced at all showed no improvement in performance; and many exhibited a drop. Those who had physically practiced one hour each day showed a performance increase of 24 percent. The players who hadn't practiced at all showed no improvement in performance; and many exhibited a drop. Those who had physically practiced one hour each day showed a performance increase of 24 percent. The visualization group, by merely imagining themselves successfully shooting free throws, improved 23 percent The visualization group, by merely imagining themselves successfully shooting free throws, improved 23 percent

6 Stress and the Mind-Body Connection Repressed Conscious or Unconscious Emotions Repressed Conscious or Unconscious Emotions Abnormal Autonomic Activity (Sympathetic) Abnormal Autonomic Activity (Sympathetic) Reduced Local Circulation of Blood Reduced Local Circulation of Blood Mild Oxygen Deprivation Mild Oxygen Deprivation Muscle Pain Nerve pain/Numbness/Tingling/Weakness Nerve pain/Numbness/Tingling/Weakness Tendon Pain Tendon Pain DECREASED PERFORMANCE

7 Biochemical Diet Diet Supplementation Supplementation

8 A Balanced Approach to Diet Focus on fueling the body with nutrients that provide energy for exercise rather than on calorie restriction. Focus on fueling the body with nutrients that provide energy for exercise rather than on calorie restriction. Optimize nutrients Optimize nutrients Shift balance of omega-3:omega-6 fats Shift balance of omega-3:omega-6 fats Change carbohydrate sources to fruits and vegetables Change carbohydrate sources to fruits and vegetables Incorporate lean protein sources with every meal and snack Incorporate lean protein sources with every meal and snack All calories are not created equal All calories are not created equal

9 The Healthy Plate Protein Starch Non-starchy veggies Asparagus Broccoli Cabbage Carrots DGLV Green beans Peppers Tomatoes Corn Peas Potatoes Pumpkin Squash Sweet potatoes Whole grains Yams Beans & lentils Beef (grassfed) Cottage cheese Eggs Fish Nuts & nut butters Poultry & pork (lean) Tempeh & tofu

10 The Power of Color RED (anthocyanins, lycopenes)- strawberries, cranberries, raspberries, cherries, grapes, beets, peppers, water melon, pomegranates, apples, onions, pink grapefruit ORANGE-YELLOW (beta carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin)- carrots, sweet potatoes, yellow potatoes, orange, mangoes, cantaloupe, pumpkin, squash, apricots, corn, banana, turmeric, ginger GREEN (beta carotene, lutein)- spinach, chard, kale, avocado, asparagus, artichokes, broccoli. Brussels sprouts, cabbage, green tea BLUE-PURPLE (anthocyanins)- blueberries, blackberries, grapes, red wine, eggplant WHITE- garlic, onion, cauliflower BLACK/BROWN- Coffee, dark chocolate, nuts The Color Code. James A. Joseph, Ph.D., Daniel A. Nadeau, M.D., Anne Underwood

11 General Macronutrient Guidelines CHO- 40-55% PRO- 25-30% (1-2 g/kg body weight) FAT- 25-30% *Base macronutrient intake upon type of exercise/sport, goals, mood and energy level

12 Fats Eat more: monounsaturated & omega 3s -avocado, olive, fish, flax, walnuts, wild game, DGLV Limit: saturated fat - beef, butter, cheese, egg yolks Avoid/eliminate: trans fat - margarine, partially hydrogenated oils *Eating healthy fats is essential for weight loss, general health, fitness and a fat-burning metabolism

13 Omega 3:Omega 6 Omega 3= fish, flaxseed, walnuts, canola, DGLV, grassfed beef Omega 3= fish, flaxseed, walnuts, canola, DGLV, grassfed beef Omega 6= soybean oil, safflower oil, corn oil, other polyunsaturated vegetable and seed oils Omega 6= soybean oil, safflower oil, corn oil, other polyunsaturated vegetable and seed oils *Imbalances between omega 3:omega 6 increases inflammation, thereby increasing risk for inflammatory diseases such as CHD, stroke, autoimmune problems, eczema, RA, etc.

14 What About Carbs? Glycemic Index (GI) = measures the rise in blood sugar triggered by a specific number of carbohydrates of that food. The higher the number, the greater the blood sugar response. Glycemic Load (GL) = indicates how much of a carbohydrate is in a serving of a particular food. *Choosing foods with a low GL is beneficial for weight loss and overall health *Choosing foods with a low GL is beneficial for weight loss and overall health

15 The Influence of Hormones When you eat, what you eat and how you exercise affects which hormones are released

16 The Influence of Hormones 1. Catabolic- glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol 2. Anabolic- testosterone, growth hormone, IGF-1, insulin

17 How food intake affects hormonal response Insulin (lipogenic and anabolic): Lowers blood sugar, raises triglycerides and shuttles AAs and other nutrients into muscles Glucagon (lipolytic and catabolic): Raises blood sugar and breaks down fat and protein for energy CHO triggers insulin CHO triggers insulin Protein triggers glucagon Protein triggers glucagon Fat is neutral Fat is neutral

18 Nutrient Timing Critical for: Immune function Immune function Recovery and repair Recovery and repair Reducing body fat Reducing body fat Increasing/maintaining energy Increasing/maintaining energy Nutrient Timing: The Future of Sports Nutrition by John Ivy & Robert Portman Basic Health Publications (February 20, 2004) Nutrient Timing: The Future of Sports Nutrition by John Ivy & Robert Portman Basic Health Publications (February 20, 2004)

19 Energy Phase Carbohydrate/protein supplement 30 minutes before working out: 1. Maintains immune function Carbohydrate/protein supplement 30 minutes before working out: 1. Maintains immune function 2. Stops rise in cortisol 2. Stops rise in cortisol 3. Sets stage for faster post-workout recovery 3. Sets stage for faster post-workout recovery 4. Spares muscle glycogen and protein 4. Spares muscle glycogen and protein 5. Minimizes muscle damage 5. Minimizes muscle damage e.g. 20 g high glycemic CHO, 5-6 g whey protein, electrolyte/vitamin formula (C, E, Na, K, Mg)

20 Anabolic Phase CHO/Protein within 45 minutes after exercising to optimize insulin response and repair muscle CHO/Protein within 45 minutes after exercising to optimize insulin response and repair muscle 1. Shifts metabolism from catabolic to anabolic state 1. Shifts metabolism from catabolic to anabolic state 2. Speeds up elimination of waste by increasing muscle blood flow 2. Speeds up elimination of waste by increasing muscle blood flow 3. Replenishes glycogen stores 3. Replenishes glycogen stores 4. Initiates tissue repair and reduces muscle damage 4. Initiates tissue repair and reduces muscle damage 5. Bolsters immune system and sets stage for muscle growth 5. Bolsters immune system and sets stage for muscle growth

21 Growth Phase The 18-24 hr period after exercise during which the majority of muscle and strength gains occur. The 18-24 hr period after exercise during which the majority of muscle and strength gains occur. 1. Consume CHO/PRO 2 hr after exercise 1. Consume CHO/PRO 2 hr after exercise 2. Eat high protein diet and high protein/low glycemic CHO snacks (depending upon goals e.g. body building, weight gain/loss etc.) 2. Eat high protein diet and high protein/low glycemic CHO snacks (depending upon goals e.g. body building, weight gain/loss etc.)

22 Ergogenic Aids Creatine—take 3 to 6 grams daily (for higher intensity events and body building) Creatine—take 3 to 6 grams daily (for higher intensity events and body building) Whey protein- consume pre and post workout Whey protein- consume pre and post workout Physique athletes have a higher protein:carb ratio than performance athletes Physique athletes have a higher protein:carb ratio than performance athletes Caffeine— 5 mg caffeine per kg of body weight (drip=65-100 mg/cup; 2 oz espresso= about 100mg). Ingest caffeine about 3 - 4 hours before the competition. Caffeine mobilizes fat stores and encourages working muscles to use fat as a fuel. This delays the depletion of muscle glycogen and allows for a prolongation of exercise. Also lowers RPE. Caffeine— 5 mg caffeine per kg of body weight (drip=65-100 mg/cup; 2 oz espresso= about 100mg). Ingest caffeine about 3 - 4 hours before the competition. Caffeine mobilizes fat stores and encourages working muscles to use fat as a fuel. This delays the depletion of muscle glycogen and allows for a prolongation of exercise. Also lowers RPE. Glutamine— several grams post-workout during times of very intense training Glutamine— several grams post-workout during times of very intense training Vitamins—take a multivitamin (with iron for menstruating females) daily Vitamins—take a multivitamin (with iron for menstruating females) daily Sports drinks/Carbohydrate gels— see next slides Sports drinks/Carbohydrate gels— see next slides EFA's—eat fish 2 to 3 times per week or take 2 to 4 grams of EPA and DHA daily EFA's—eat fish 2 to 3 times per week or take 2 to 4 grams of EPA and DHA daily BCAA (Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine) BCAA (Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine) Quercetin- 250-500 mg 15 minutes before meals three times per day Quercetin- 250-500 mg 15 minutes before meals three times per day CoQ10- 300mg daily CoQ10- 300mg daily Green/black Tea- 2-8 cups daily Green/black Tea- 2-8 cups daily Fresh fruit and vegetables (Phytochemicals) Fresh fruit and vegetables (Phytochemicals) Water Water

23 Sport Drinks Best for- endurance athletes who exercise for more than an hour at a time Best for- endurance athletes who exercise for more than an hour at a time What to look for- 6-9% CHO (divide grams of CHO per serving by the milliliters of drink per serving and multiply by 100) What to look for- 6-9% CHO (divide grams of CHO per serving by the milliliters of drink per serving and multiply by 100) >9%- GI distress >9%- GI distress <5%- not enough to fuel muscles <5%- not enough to fuel muscles Home made- mix 9 tsp sugar, 1/8 tsp salt and the juice of 1 lemon. Home made- mix 9 tsp sugar, 1/8 tsp salt and the juice of 1 lemon. Dose- Take 5-12 ounces every 15-20 minutes Dose- Take 5-12 ounces every 15-20 minutes

24 Carbohydrate Gels Best for- endurance athletes who exercise for more than an hour at a time Best for- endurance athletes who exercise for more than an hour at a time What to look for- 70-100 calories and 17-25, CHO. What to look for- 70-100 calories and 17-25, CHO. Dose- 1-2 gels per hour (30-60g CHO). Take with 8 oz water to enhance digestion Dose- 1-2 gels per hour (30-60g CHO). Take with 8 oz water to enhance digestion Good food sources- Honey sticks (1 tsp/25 calories). Take 2-3 sticks per ½ hour Good food sources- Honey sticks (1 tsp/25 calories). Take 2-3 sticks per ½ hour

25 Structure Identify musculoskeletal dysfunction Identify musculoskeletal dysfunction Treatment (e.g. trigger point acupuncture, soft tissue release, joint manipulation Treatment (e.g. trigger point acupuncture, soft tissue release, joint manipulation Optimizing the kinetic chain through corrective exercise Optimizing the kinetic chain through corrective exercise Exercise- core, strength & hypertrophy, power Exercise- core, strength & hypertrophy, power

26 Kinetic Chain MuscularArticularNeural

27 5 Kinetic Chain Checkpoints 1. Feet- Straight ahead with neutral ankle position 2. Knees- straight ahead in line with 2nd and 3 rd toes 3. Hips- neutral spine and abdominal drawn in 4. Shoulders- in line with center of hip joint 5. Head- center of ear in line with center of shoulder

28 Optimum Alignment Alignment of the musculoskeletal system allowing posture to be balanced with center of gravity Alignment of the musculoskeletal system allowing posture to be balanced with center of gravity Ability of the neuromuscular system to perform functional tasks with the least amount of energy and stress on the kinetic chain Ability of the neuromuscular system to perform functional tasks with the least amount of energy and stress on the kinetic chain

29 Ideal Posture Optimum muscle length-tension relationships at which a muscles are capable of developing maximal tension Optimum muscle length-tension relationships at which a muscles are capable of developing maximal tension

30 Muscle Imbalance Altered Reciprocol inhibition (Altered length- tension ) Synergistic Dominance (Altered force- couple) Arthrokinetic Dysfunction (Altered Joint function)

31 Dysfunction Altered reciprocal inhibition- a tight muscle causes decreased neural drive to its functional antagonist Altered reciprocal inhibition- a tight muscle causes decreased neural drive to its functional antagonist Synergistis dominance- compensation of synergistic muscles in order to maintain force production Synergistis dominance- compensation of synergistic muscles in order to maintain force production Myofascial dysfunction (trigger points) Myofascial dysfunction (trigger points) Arthrokinematic dysfunction- joint dysfunction affecting the surrounding muscles Arthrokinematic dysfunction- joint dysfunction affecting the surrounding muscles Faulty movement patterns Faulty movement patterns

32 Dysfunction Leads to Altered neuromuscular control Altered neuromuscular control Tissue fatigue Tissue fatigue Injury and impaired performance Injury and impaired performance

33 Causes of Muscle Imbalances Postural stress Postural stress Pattern overload Pattern overload Repetitive movement Repetitive movement Lack of core stability Lack of core stability Lack of neuromuscular efficiency Lack of neuromuscular efficiency

34 PATTERNS OF DYSFUNCTION When a chain reaction evolves in which some muscles shorten and others weaken, in predictable patterns of imbalance (Janda) When a chain reaction evolves in which some muscles shorten and others weaken, in predictable patterns of imbalance (Janda) 1. Upper crossed syndrome 2. Lower crossed syndrome

35 Cumulative Injury Cycle Muscle Imbalance Altered Neuromuscular Control Muscle Spasm - Adhesions/Trigger points Tissue Trauma Inflammation

36 STRUCTURAL CAUSES OF PAIN STRUCTURAL CAUSES OF PAIN 1. Trigger Points 2. Muscle shortening 3. Altered joint mechanics 4. Abherant motion 5. Pathology

37 MYOFASCIAL TRIGGER POINTS 1.Small circumscribed hyperirritable foci in muscles and fascia 1.Small circumscribed hyperirritable foci in muscles and fascia 2. Begins with a muscle strain 2. Begins with a muscle strain 3. Site of sensitized nerves, increased metabolism and reduced circulation 3. Site of sensitized nerves, increased metabolism and reduced circulation

38 TRIGGER POINT SYMPTOMS 1. Local or referred pain 2. Pain with muscle contraction 3. Muscle stiffness and restricted joint motion 4. Muscle weakness 5. Paresthesia and numbness 6. Proprioceptive disturbance 7. Autonomic dysfunction

39 Trigger Points Can Compromise Flexability Flexability Balance Balance Strength Strength Power Power Speed Speed Agility Agility

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43 PERPETUATING FACTORS 1. Mechanical Stresses 2. Nutritional/Dietary factors 3. Metabolic and Endocrine Inadequacies 4. Psychological factors 5. Chronic Infection 6. Other (allergy, sleep, improper breathing, dehydration, smoking, caffeine, medications, visceral disease)

44 TREATMENT 1. Release muscle shortening and deactivate trigger points- trigger point acupuncture, soft tissue and joint manipulation 2. Corrective exercise 3. Prevention- core, strength, power exercises 4. Diet/Nutrition 5. Lifestyle modification

45 “DRY NEEDLING” (Intramuscular Stimulation) Insertion of an Acupuncture needle according to neuroanatomical concepts Insertion of an Acupuncture needle according to neuroanatomical concepts

46 THE EFFECTS OF DRY NEEDLING 1. Strengthen Tendons & Ligaments by inducing local inflammatory reactions (PDGF, Fibroblasts, collagen) 2. Stimulates stretch sensitive GTO & Muscle Spindles 3. Mechanical disruption 4. Treat Overactive Motor Points 5. Provides Blood & Growth Factors which can disrupt microscars 6. Alters Neural Control via neurotransmitters, endorphins and inhibitory mechanisms 7. Stimulates Reflex Mechanisms e.g. spinal, sympathetic and circulatory

47 SOFT TISSUE RELEASE TECHNIQUE (Taws) 1.Specific contact is made on the muscle 2.Traction is applied to the tissue in order to trap the lesion 3.The muscle is moved either actively or passively through the line of injury 4.The stretch is held for 1-2 seconds 5.Repetitions are done in different positions and planes of motion (8-10 times)

48 EFFECTS OF SOFT TISSUE RELEASE 1. STR stretches and softens scar tissue/adhesions 2. Pain input messages to limbic system are reprogrammed 3. Muscle length, flexability and memory are regained

49 Adjunctive Therapy Hydrotherapy- hot, cold and contrast Hydrotherapy- hot, cold and contrast Kinesiotaping Kinesiotaping Supplements: Bromelain, C/Bioflavonoids, Cal/Mag, DMSO, Glucosamine, MSM, Fish oil, Biofreeze Supplements: Bromelain, C/Bioflavonoids, Cal/Mag, DMSO, Glucosamine, MSM, Fish oil, Biofreeze Exercise Exercise

50 OPT Exercise Model (NASM)

51 Functional Exercise (NASM) Multiplanar (sagittal, transverse, frontal) Multiplanar (sagittal, transverse, frontal) Involves acceleration, deceleration and stabilization Involves acceleration, deceleration and stabilization Multiple speeds Multiple speeds Varying body positions Varying body positions Optimum alignment Optimum alignment

52 Integrative Exercise (NASM) Integrative Exercise (NASM) Kinetic chain Assessment Kinetic chain Assessment Flexibilty Flexibilty Core stabilization Core stabilization Balance Balance Speed and agility Speed and agility Resistance Resistance Power Power Cardiorespiratory Cardiorespiratory Supportive nutrition Supportive nutrition Recovery and regeneration Recovery and regeneration

53 Periodization Planned changes in training programs to facilitate steady improvements by manipulating volume and intensity Five Stages: 1. Anatomical adaptation- general conditioning 2. Hypertrophy 3. Strength 4. Maximal strength/power 5. Skill

54 Anabolic Hormones and Exercise 1. Growth Hormone 2. Testosterone 3. IGF-1 4. Insulin

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56 Hormonally Intelligent Exercise Short rest- 30 sec or less Short rest- 30 sec or less Multiple sets- 4 plus Multiple sets- 4 plus 6-12 repetitions 6-12 repetitions Intensity 65% or more Intensity 65% or more Large muscle groups (compound exercises- squat, deadlift, lunge, push, pull, twist) Large muscle groups (compound exercises- squat, deadlift, lunge, push, pull, twist) keep blood sugar levels balanced with pre/post nutrition keep blood sugar levels balanced with pre/post nutrition Anaerobic (EPOC- excess post exercise oxygen consumption) Anaerobic (EPOC- excess post exercise oxygen consumption)

57 Stabilisation (NASM) Correct imbalances that could lead to injury or correct injuries that prevent exercise or cause dysfunction Correct imbalances that could lead to injury or correct injuries that prevent exercise or cause dysfunction

58 Corrective Exercise Protocol Inhibit Inhibit Lengthen Lengthen Activate Activate Integrate Integrate

59 Stretching Continuum 1. Static (autogenic inhibition)- passively taking a muscle to a point of tension for 20 seconds 2. Active (reciprocal inhibition)- using agonists and synergists to dynamically move the joint into a range of motion. Typically 10 reps of 2 seconds 3. Dynamic- uses the force production of a muscle and the body’s momentum to take a joint through full available range of motion. Used as pre-activity warm- up

60 Strength and Conditioning Journal: Vol. 24, No. 6, pp. 33–37. Should Static Stretching Be Used During a Warm-Up for Strength and Power Activities? The objective of stretching in a warm-up is to achieve a short- term increase in the ROM at a joint or to induce muscle relaxation and therefore decrease the stiffness of the muscle- tendon system The objective of stretching in a warm-up is to achieve a short- term increase in the ROM at a joint or to induce muscle relaxation and therefore decrease the stiffness of the muscle- tendon system Substantial evidence is now available to state that static stretching can impair strength and power performance Substantial evidence is now available to state that static stretching can impair strength and power performance Instead, rehearsal of the skill about to be performed, at gradually increasing intensities, culminating in some efforts that are equal to or greater than the expected competition intensity. This type of dynamic warm-up serves to activate or recruit the specific muscle fibers and neural pathways required to achieve optimum neuromuscular performance Instead, rehearsal of the skill about to be performed, at gradually increasing intensities, culminating in some efforts that are equal to or greater than the expected competition intensity. This type of dynamic warm-up serves to activate or recruit the specific muscle fibers and neural pathways required to achieve optimum neuromuscular performance

61 Summary 1. Balanced diet with “power” foods and phytonutrients 2. Full-body workouts 2-3x/week, including core, flexibility, strength and power 3. High intensity interval training 2x/week 4. Low-intensity activities 1-2x/week 5. Don’t stress the small stuff 6. Get adequate sleep


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