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Dermal and Subcutaneous Tumors – Part II

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1 Dermal and Subcutaneous Tumors – Part II
Adam Wray, D.O. June 28, 2005

2 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Five Presentations: 1. Classic 2. African Cutaneous
Middle aged, European men Red, violaceous nodules on toes or soles. Coalesce to form plaques. Brawny edema Later more widespread involvement esp soft palate. Periods of remission/involution. 2. African Cutaneous Nodular infiltrating vascular masses of extremities Men yrs. Endemic to Africa. Locally aggressive. Massive edema of legs and bone involvement.

3 Kaposi’s Sarcoma 3. African Lymphadenopathic 4. AIDS
Lymph nodes with/without skin in children <10. Fatal in < 2years. 4. AIDS Violaceous macules progress to papules, nodules and plaques. Head, neck, trunk and mucous membranes. 5. Lymphoma / immunosuppressive TX. Resembles classic but more variable presentation.

4 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Classic Variety.

5 Kaposi’s Sarcoma HIV Associated.

6 Kaposi’s Sarcoma

7 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Internal Involvement
G.I. Tract is site of internal involvement esp the small intestine. Skeletal changes are diagnostic Rarefaction, cyst, cortical erosion In AIDS: 25% cutaneous alone, 29% viscous alone. Ultimately, 70% will have viscous involvement of G.I. (50%), lungs (37%) or Lymph nodes (50%)

8 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Etiopathogenesis Histology
Proliferation of abnormal vascular endothelial cells. Muliticentric origin HHV-8 is strongly assoc. and predictive of K.S. in HIV infected individuals. Histology Large endothelial cells of capillaries protrude into lumen like buds. Lesions with proliferation of capillaries and fibrosarcoma like tissue in varying proportions. Late lesions: spindle cell proliferation with sarcoma like properties.

9 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Early lesion with dilated thin walled vascular vessels with protruding endothelial cells.

10 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Later, ‘hemangioma- like’ lesion.

11 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Treatment:
Radiation. (all types are responsive) For individual lesions: cryotherapy, vincristine, excision, laser ablation. Alitretinoin applied 2-4 times daily. Systemic chemotherapy if >10 lesions / month or symptomatic visceral involvement. Resistance to single chemo agents over time so combo with other modalities. Course: Usually progresses slowly and is rarely the cause of death. (except African cutaneous variety.

12 Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma
Solitary, slow growing papule on the extremities. Intermediate between angiosarcoma and hemangioma. M>F. Frequently before age of 25 years. Rare. Histology: Dilated vascular channels, spindle cells; cords and nests of epithelioid endothelial cells in a myxoid or hyalinized background 30% mets to regional nodes, lung, liver, or bone TX: Wide excision with evaluation of regional nodes % 2 year mortality.

13 Spindle cell Hemangioendothelioma
AKA spindle cell hemangioma Child or young adult with Multifocal occurance of firm, blue nodules on extremity Rare. May recur when excised. Retiform Hemangioendothelioma Low grade angiosarcoma. Slow growing exophytic mass sub-Q nodule or even a plaque. Rare Extremities of young adults Wide excision. Nodes may be affected locally but no deaths reported due to Mets.

14 Spindle Cell Hemangioendothelioma
Blue red nodules that appear in the dermal and subcutaneous tissue of the distal extremities of young adults and children and tend to multiply locally.

15 Angiosarcoma 1.) Head and neck tumor of elderly
4 Clinical settings: 1.) Head and neck tumor of elderly Most common clinical setting M:F = ratio 2:1 Ill defined bluish nodule resembles a bruise often with an erythematous ring. Satellite nodules, bleeding are common. TX: Complete excision with radiation. Multicentric nature and rapid metastasis usually results in death in two years. 2.) In area of chronic lyphedema. Appears 4-27 years following duration of lympedema Classically after mastectomy (Stewart-Treves) Appears 10 years after surgery in 0.45 % of pts. Mets to lungs = death in months. (6% -5 year)

16 Angiosarcoma 3.) Previously irradiated sites 4.) Miscellaneous subset.
Interval of tumor development depends on nature of lesion for which radiation was given: Benign – 23 years to develop. Malignant – 12 years. Prognosis: death in 6-24 months. 4.) Miscellaneous subset.

17 Angiosarcoma

18 Angiosarcoma Infiltration of the dermis by ill-defined vascular spaces and hyperchromatic, atypical endothelial cells. Factor VIII staining is positive.

19 Fibrous Tissue Abnormalities
Keloids Firm, irregularly shaped, fibrous excrescence usually at a site of previous trauma. Claw-like projections overgrow wound boundary. May occur at any body site. Most common site - sternal. Histopathology: Growth of myofibroblast and collagen in the dermis with a whirl like arrangement of hyalinized bundles of collagen. There is a paucity of elastic tissue and thinning of the overlying papillary dermis. DDX: Hypertrophic scar- No claw like extensions. Stays in wound boundaries. Often improves in 6 mo. TX: Intralesional kenalog mg/cc. Lasers. Excision with intralesional injections. Silicone sheeting.

20 Keloids Hypertrophic Scar at 5 months and 1 year

21 Spontaneous Keloids

22 Keloids Hypertrophic Scar Keloid Keloid



25 Dupuytren’s Contracture
Fibromatosis of the palmar aponeurosis. Plantar Fibromatosis is seen on soles. Men years. Multiple firm nodules in the palm, 1 cm in diameter, proximal to the 4th finger. Contractures develop with time. Associations: Alcoholic cirrhosis, DM, epilepsy, plantar fibromatosis, Peyronies dx. Familiar predispositions. TX: Early intralesional Triamcinolone, Surgery.

26 Dupuytren’s Contracture

27 Knuckle Pads Well defined, round, plaque-like fibrous thickenings that develop over the proximal interphalangeal joints on toes and fingers. May become 10-15mm in diameter and persist permanently. Remain freely mobile. Assoc with Dupuytren’s contractures and some autosomal dominate familial cases have been reported. Histology: Fibromas TX: intralesional steroids.

28 Knuckle Pads

29 Peyronie’s Disease Fibrous infiltration of intercavernous septum of the penis results in nodules and plaques. A fibrous chordee is produced with curvature of on erection. Assoc with Dupuytren’s contractor TX: Intralesional Triamcinolone may be curative.

30 Peyronie’s Disease As Dr. Ladd would say: ‘Something just ain’t right…..’

31 Desmoid Tumor Deep seated well circumscribed mass arising from muscular aponeurosis. Most common on abdominal wall esp. in women during or after pregnancy. May be fatal if invade or compress vital structures. Most dangerous are those of neck and intra-abdominal TX: MRI to evaluate extent of tumor. Excision. Radiotherapy and hormonal manipulation are other options

32 Desmoid Tumor 5 subtypes Abdominal wall Extrabdominal Intrabdominal
Multiple Gardner’s syndrome

33 Congenital Generalized Fibromatosis
Aponeourotic Fibroma Juvenile aponeurotic fibroma. Slow growing cyst-like masses occurring on the limbs. X-ray reveals Stippled calcification. Congenital Generalized Fibromatosis Multiple firm dermal and subdermal nodules presenting at near birth. 2 types of involvement: Dermal and Skeletal (metaphyseal) – resolution 2 yrs. Involvement of viscera - 80% mortality. If live past 4 mo. then regression.

34 Juvenile aponeurotic fibroma

35 Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma aka juvenile aponeurotic fibroma
Islands of calcification are surrounded by palisaded and osteoclast-like fibroblasts. In between these areas are sheets of spindled and epithelioid fibroblasts in a collagenous stroma

36 Congenital Generalized Fibromatosis
Aponeourotic Fibroma Juvenile aponeurotic fibroma. Slow growing cyst-like masses occurring on the limbs. X-ray reveals Stippled calcification. Congenital Generalized Fibromatosis Infantile myofibromatosis Multiple firm dermal and subdermal nodules presenting at near birth. 2 types of involvement: Dermal and Skeletal (metaphyseal) – resolution 2 yrs. Involvement of viscera - 80% mortality. If live past 4 mo. then regression.

37 Infantile myofibromatosis aka congenital generalized fibromatosis: multiple firm violaceous papulonodules on the scalp

38 Infantile Digital Fibromatosis
Asymptomatic, firm, red, 1 cm. diameter nodules on DIP of fingers or toes during the first year of life. No metastasis. Whorled fascicles of spindle cells eosinophilic inclusion bodies Surgical excision has high recurrence. TX: Observation, hope for spontaneous resolution.

39 Infantile Digital Fibromatosis
Whorled fascicles of spindle cells Eosinophilic inclusion bodies

40 Fibrous Harmartoma of infancy
Single dermal or sub-q nodule of upper trunk present at birth. Excision. Fibomatosis Colli Fibrous proliferation infiltration sternocleidomastoid m. at birth. Spontaneous remission in a few months. Diffuse Infantile Fibromatosis Multicentric fibrous infiltration of m. of arms, neck and shoulder area.

41 Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath
Firm 1-3 cm. nodule attaches to tendons of fingers hand and wrist (esp flexor). Histopathology: Lobules of densely hyalinized collagen. Giant cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and variable nuclei. TX Excision. Recurs in 25%.

42 Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath
Sheets of epithelioid histiocytes with a variable number of the characteristic multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells. Some of the histiocytes may have pale foamy cytoplasm.

43 Ainhum Linear constriction occurs around the toes (esp 5th at PIP) eventually resulting spontaneous amputation in 5-10 years. Begins as grove on flexor surface and joins over time. African Men. Etiology: Unknown. (Trauma?) TX: Surgery sometimes helpful. Intralesional steroids. Pseudo-Ainhum: Hereditary and nonhereditary diseases associated with annular constriction.

44 Ainhum

45 Ainhum

46 Connective Tissue Nevi
Multiple or solitary plaques 1-15 cm in diameter, yellow to light orange with a shagreen leather like surface texture. Predilection for lumbosacral area. Acquired type: eruptive collagenoma, isolated collagenoma and isolated elastoma Congenital Types: 1.) Buschke – Ollendorf: AD. Widespread asymmetrically distributed plaques. Osteopoikilosis of long bones is diagnostic.

47 Connective Tissue Nevi
(Continued) 2.) Familial cutaneous collagenomas: Numerous symmetrical asymptomatic nodules on back. Onset in teens. MEN-I assoc. In tuberous sclerosis, connective tissue nevi are shagreen patches. ½ of T.S. cases are new mutations so any pt with connective tissue nevi should be evaluated for tuberous sclerosis.

48 Connective Tissue Nevi

49 Angiofibromas Fibrous and vascular proliferation of upper dermis
Common types: Fibrous papule of the nose – 3-6 mm diameter, dome shaped sessile papule with white to reddish color. Usually solitary. Pearly Penile Papule – Pearly white papules appearing on the coronal margin and sometimes on penile shaft. No TX required Multiple hereditary forms - adenoma sebaceum (Tuberous Sclerosis) and in MEN-I

50 Angiofibromas Fibrous papule of the nose Pearly Penile Papule

51 Acral Fibrokeratoma Pink, hyperkeratotic, hornlike projection on fingers (most common) toes or palms. Emerges from a collarette of scale. Average age 40. TX: excision. Laser ablation.

52 Acral Fibrokeratoma

53 Subungal Exostosis Solitary, fibrous and bony nodule protruding from the distal edge of the nail, most commonly of the great toe. Begins as a pink papule which destroys overlying nail and grows to a maximum diameter of 8 mm. Pressure causes great pain. X-ray is diagnostic TX: excision and curettage.

54 Subungal Exostosis

55 Chondrodermatits Nodularis Chronica Helicis
Small, tender, inflammatory nodule with gently sloping sides located on the outer helix. Common in older men. No malignant potential. Often hx of chronic trauma. Lesions are very painful. Pt often complains of pain when sleeps on lesion. Histology: Degeneration of collagen with acanthosis and hyperkeratosis and thinning of epidermis. TX: Excision. Often a spicule of cartilage is discovered. (Transdermal elimination).

56 Chondrodermatits Nodularis Chronica Helicis

57 Achrocordon Flesh colored, pigmented sessile or pedunculated papillomas. Areas: eyelids, axilla, neck, groin. 60 % incidence by the age of 69. Treatment: excision, cryosurgery

58 Dermatofibroma Lesion which grows slowly to a firm, 4-20 mm diameter papule or nodule, yellow or reddish brown in color and then stops expanding. Sharply demarcated. Chiefly located on lower extremities. ‘Dimple sign’. Seldom seen in children. May grow to 5 cm in size. Etiology: Trauma, bites ? CD34 neg; Factor XIII pos; Stromolysin pos Histology: Dermal mass or whorled fibrous tissue. Numerous cells with large nuclei and spindle cells. Some very atypical cells referred to as ‘Monster cells’. Respects subQ fat TX: Reassurance. Progressive enlargement warrants excision.

59 Dermatofibroma

60 Dermatofibroma Nodular proliferation of spindled fibroblasts and histiocytes in the reticular dermis, with hyperplasia and hyperpigmentation of the overlying epidermis. There is extension into the subcutaneous tissue in a radial pattern (arrow). The fibroblasts are arranged in broad intersecting fascicles with entrapment of thick collagen bundles

61 Dermatofibroma Monster Cells

62 Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans
On a middle aged PT, a slowly enlarging, erythematous, firm nodule or plaque often with purulence appears on the trunk (60%). Pain is more prominent with as lesion grows and may be severe. Early lesions resemble keloids or large DF. Histology: Subepidermal fibrotic plaque with uniform spindle cells. Cartwheel pattern of spindle cells surrounding collagen. Pigment cells = Bednar tumor in dark skinned individuals. CD 34 positive. TX: Mohs (2% recurrence) or wide excision (11-50%) recurrence.

63 Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

64 Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans
Characteristic multilayered pattern of infiltration into the subcutaneous tissue

65 Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans
Spindle-shaped cells are arranged in a ‘storiform’ pattern.


67 Nodular Fasciitis Deep, firm, solitary, sometimes tender nodule of deep fascia that rapidly grows to 1-4 cm in diameter over several weeks. Pt is otherwise healthy and average age is 40 years. Variants: Dermal, intravascular and proliferating. Histology: myxoid, fibroblastic and capillary proliferation. Lymphocytic-histiocytic infiltration. TX: complete excision. Intralesional steroids.

68 Nodular Fasciitis Spindle-shaped and stellate fibroblasts are loosely arranged in a myxomatous stroma, with some cells in mitosis

69 Atypical Fibroxanthoma
Small, firm nodule often with eroded surface. Usually occurs on sun exposed locations on the head and neck, Caucasians >50 yrs. old. A subset occurs in 25% of patients where the tumor is located on covered area in person approx 40 yrs old. Histology: Bizarre spindle cells (vesicular nucleus) and atypical histiocytes with mitotic cells, eosinophilic nuclei and biphasic cell population. TX: Surgical excision. Recurrence is frequent and MOHS offers best cure rate. Possible metastasis in rare cases.

70 Atypical Fibroxanthoma

71 Atypical Fibroxanthoma
The spindle cells have pale foamy cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei with small nucleoli. There is also a large atypical giant cell with darker nuclear chromatin as well as a cell in atypical mitosis.

72 Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma
Most common soft tissue sarcoma of middle age and late adulthood. Resembles DFSP. Progressively enlarging, 1-3 cm diameter, protruding, tumor with a reddish or dusky 1/3 on thigh or buttocks. Peak incidence in 7th decade. Association with radiodermatitis and chronic ulcers. Histology: Polygonal and spindle cells with large bizarre multinucleated types. Pleomorphic cellular elements and bizarre mitotic figures. TX: Excision. Recurrence in 25 % of cases. Metastasis in 35%. Overall survival of 50% Prognosis: Deeper and proximal = poorer prognosis. Assoc with radiodermatitis = esp poor prognosis

73 Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma

74 Epithelioid Sarcoma Tumor of the extremities (half on hands) of young men (2/3 of cases), ages years. Slow growing tumor among fascial structures and tendons with nodules and overlying ulceration. DDX: G.A. fibroma, EIC, ganglion, SSC. HX: Acidophilic polygonal cells merging with spindle cells and hyalinized collagen. TX: Wide local excision in early disease. Recurrence in 3 of 4 cases. Late mets in 45%

75 Epithelioid Sarcoma Epithelioid cells are palisaded around an area of necrosis.

76 Myxomas 1.) Digital Mucous cyst. 2 types:
Taut, shiny translucent white or pink dome shaped lesions typically located distal to the DIP joint. Often with accompanying grooving and dystrophy of the associated nail. Focal accumulations of mucin without a true lining. Etiology: Assoc with joint space and forms by extrusion of jt. space mucin? Independent of jt. space? TX: Drain, Excision. Intralesional steroids.

77 Digital Mucous cyst.

78 Myxomas 2.) Cutaneous Myxomas
Solitary of multiple flesh colored nodules of the trunk, face or extremities. Syndromes: Carney (Also called: NAME, LAMB ect.) Autosomal dominate inheritance Carney syndrome (2+ of following) Cardiac Atrial Myxoma (79%) Can be life threatening. Cutaneous myxomas (45%) <1 cm flesh colored papules which develop by the age of 18 and occur on ears, eyelids and nipples. Mammary myxoid fibromas (30%) Spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation (blue nevi) (65%) Prim. Pig. Nodular adrenocortical disease. (45%) Testicular tumors (56%) Pituitary G.H. secreting tumors. (10%)

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