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Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Autonomic division  Antagonistic controls  Control of cardiac, smooth muscle,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Autonomic division  Antagonistic controls  Control of cardiac, smooth muscle,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Autonomic division  Antagonistic controls  Control of cardiac, smooth muscle, and glands in homeostasis  Agonists and antagonists in research and medicine  Somatic motor division  CNS control of skeletal muscles through neuromuscular junctions Autonomic vs somatic efferent systems

2 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Division: Homeostasis  Antagonistic branches  Parasympathetic  “Rest and digest”  Restore body function  Sympathetic  “Fight or flight”  Energetic action

3 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Division: Homeostasis Figure 11-1

4 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11-2 Autonomic Pathways  Coordination of homeostatic responses  Autonomic  Endocrine  Behavioral

5 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Control Centers  Hypothalamus  Water balance, temperature, and hunger  Pons  Respiration, cardiac, and urinary  Medulla  Respiration Figure 11-3

6 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Two Efferent Neurons in Series Autonomic pathways Figure 11-4

7 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11-5 Antagonistic Control Autonomic sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways

8 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic versus Parasympathetic Figure 11-7

9 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic versus Parasympathetic

10 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Targets  Smooth muscle  Cardiac muscle  Exocrine glands  Endocrine glands  Lymphoid tissue  Adipose tissue

11 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic Neuron Structure Varicosities in autonomic neurons Figure 11-8

12 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synapses in Autonomic Neurons  Neurotransmitter released to ECF  No synaptic cleft  Impact  Large area  Slow acting  Long duration  Norepinephrine activates 2 subtypes of  and  adrenergic receptors G-protein coupled receptors that use different 2nd messengers  receptors increase cAMP  1 receptors enhance cardiac muscle contraction  2 receptors relax smooth muscle  receptors activate phospholipase C creating IP 3 (release of calcium from intracellular stores) and DAG (phosphorylation)  1 receptors cause smooth muscle contraction or exocytosis  Acetylcholine activates G-protein coupled muscarinic receptors 2nd messenger cascades leading to opening of K + or Ca 2+ channels

13 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Agonists and Antagonists

14 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Adrenal Medulla  Primary neurotransmitter  Epinephrine  Multiple and distant targets

15 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 11-10b Adrenal Medulla

16 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Adrenal Medulla Figure 11-10c

17 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (1 of 5) Somatic motor pathway CNS Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine KEY Skeletal muscle Nicotinic receptor ACh

18 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (2 of 5) ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh

19 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (3 of 5) ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS ACh CNS Sympathetic pathways Ganglia Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY  receptor Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh NE

20 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (4 of 5) ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS ACh CNS Sympathetic pathways Ganglia Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine  1 receptor Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY  receptor Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh NE

21 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Review of Efferent Pathways Figure (5 of 5) ACh Somatic motor pathway Parasympathetic pathway Ganglion Nicotinic receptor Nicotinic receptor CNS AUTONOMIC PATHWAYS ACh CNS Adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex E Sympathetic pathways Ganglia Ach= acetylcholine E= epinephrine NE= norepinephrine  1 receptor  2 receptor Blood vessel E Autonomic effectors: Smooth and cardiac muscles Some endocrine and exocrine glands Some adipose tissue KEY  receptor Skeletal muscle ACh Muscarinic receptor Nicotinic receptor ACh NE Adrenal sympathetic pathway

22 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neural Reflexes

23 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Somatic Motor Reflexes Monosynaptic and polysynaptic somatic motor reflexes Figure 13-1a

24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-1b Somatic Motor Reflexes

25 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Skeletal Muscle Reflexes  Proprioceptors are located in skeletal muscle, joint capsules, and ligaments  Proprioceptors carry input sensory neurons to CNS  CNS integrates input signal  Somatic motor neurons carry output signal  Alpha motor neurons  Effectors are contractile skeletal muscle fibers

26 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-3a–b Proprioceptors Muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs are sensory receptors in muscle

27 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-4a Muscle Spindles Muscle spindles monitor muscle length and prevent overstretching Sensory neuron endings Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindle (a) Extrafusal muscle fibers at resting length Sensory neuron is tonically active. Spinal cord integrates function. Alpha motor neurons to extrafusal fibers receive tonic input from muscle spindles. Extrafusal fibers maintain a certain level of tension even at rest. Spinal cord Sensory neuron Alpha motor neuron

28 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-4a, step 1 Muscle Spindles Sensory neuron endings Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindle (a) Extrafusal muscle fibers at resting length Spinal cord 1 1 Muscle spindles monitor muscle length and prevent overstretching

29 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-4a, steps 1–2 Muscle Spindles Sensory neuron endings Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindle (a) Extrafusal muscle fibers at resting length Sensory neuron is tonically active. Spinal cord Sensory neuron

30 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-4a, steps 1–3 Muscle Spindles Sensory neuron endings Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindle (a) Extrafusal muscle fibers at resting length Sensory neuron is tonically active. Spinal cord integrates function. Spinal cord Sensory neuron

31 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-4a, steps 1–4 Muscle Spindles Sensory neuron endings Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindle (a) Extrafusal muscle fibers at resting length Sensory neuron is tonically active. Spinal cord integrates function. Alpha motor neurons to extrafusal fibers receive tonic input from muscle spindles. Spinal cord Sensory neuron Alpha motor neuron

32 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-4a, steps 1–5 Muscle Spindles Sensory neuron endings Intrafusal fibers of muscle spindle (a) Extrafusal muscle fibers at resting length Sensory neuron is tonically active. Spinal cord integrates function. Alpha motor neurons to extrafusal fibers receive tonic input from muscle spindles. Extrafusal fibers maintain a certain level of tension even at rest. Spinal cord Sensory neuron Alpha motor neuron

33 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-4b Muscle Spindles

34 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-7 (1 of 7) Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Stimulus: Tap to tendon stretches muscle. The patellar tendon (knee jerk) reflex illustrates a monosynaptic stretch reflex and reciprocal inhibition of the antagonistic muscle.

35 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-7 (2 of 7) Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Stimulus: Tap to tendon stretches muscle. Receptor: Muscle spindle stretches and fires. The patellar tendon (knee jerk) reflex illustrates a monosynaptic stretch reflex and reciprocal inhibition of the antagonistic muscle.

36 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-7 (3 of 7) Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Stimulus: Tap to tendon stretches muscle. Receptor: Muscle spindle stretches and fires. Afferent path: Action potential travels through sensory neuron. The patellar tendon (knee jerk) reflex illustrates a monosynaptic stretch reflex and reciprocal inhibition of the antagonistic muscle.

37 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-7 (4 of 7) Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Stimulus: Tap to tendon stretches muscle. Receptor: Muscle spindle stretches and fires. Afferent path: Action potential travels through sensory neuron. Integrating center: Sensory neuron synapses in spinal cord. The patellar tendon (knee jerk) reflex illustrates a monosynaptic stretch reflex and reciprocal inhibition of the antagonistic muscle.

38 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-7 (5 of 7) Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Stimulus: Tap to tendon stretches muscle. Receptor: Muscle spindle stretches and fires. Afferent path: Action potential travels through sensory neuron. Integrating center: Sensory neuron synapses in spinal cord. Efferent path 2: Interneuron inhibiting somatic motor neuron Efferent path 1: Somatic motor neuron The patellar tendon (knee jerk) reflex illustrates a monosynaptic stretch reflex and reciprocal inhibition of the antagonistic muscle. onto

39 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-7 (6 of 7) Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Stimulus: Tap to tendon stretches muscle. Receptor: Muscle spindle stretches and fires. Afferent path: Action potential travels through sensory neuron. Integrating center: Sensory neuron synapses in spinal cord. Efferent path 2: Interneuron inhibiting somatic motor neuron Effector 2: Hamstring muscle Efferent path 1: Somatic motor neuron Effector 1: Quadriceps muscle The patellar tendon (knee jerk) reflex illustrates a monosynaptic stretch reflex and reciprocal inhibition of the antagonistic muscle. onto

40 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 13-7 (7 of 7) Patellar Tendon (Knee Jerk) Reflex Stimulus: Tap to tendon stretches muscle. Receptor: Muscle spindle stretches and fires. Afferent path: Action potential travels through sensory neuron. Integrating center: Sensory neuron synapses in spinal cord. Efferent path 2: Interneuron inhibiting somatic motor neuron Effector 2: Hamstring muscle Response: Hamstring stays relaxed, allowing extension of leg (reciprocal inhibition). Efferent path 1: Somatic motor neuron Effector 1: Quadriceps muscle Response: Quadriceps contracts, swinging lower leg forward. The patellar tendon (knee jerk) reflex illustrates a monosynaptic stretch reflex and reciprocal inhibition of the antagonistic muscle. onto

41 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Movement


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