Presentation on theme: "SCLERODERMA Virginia Steen, MD Professor of Medicine."— Presentation transcript:
SCLERODERMA Virginia Steen, MD Professor of Medicine
Scleroderma Localized Scleroderma –Morphea –Linear Scleroderma –En Coup de Sabre (Progressive Hemi-atrophy) –Pansclerotic, Deep subcutaneous
Linear Scleroderma Linear, single extremity Hyperpigmented, Muscle atrophy but normal strength
Linear Scleroderma Severe contractures, growth disturbances, atrophy
Systemic Sclerosis An uncommon disease 250/million population, 20 new cases/ million per year, about ,000 in US Age onset usually years, rare under 10. Female 3-5: 1; Increased in African-Americans Multisystem disease - Raynauds, digital ulcers, arthritis, tendon inflammation, skin thickening, myopathy, gastrointestinal, lung, heart and kidney involvement Survival – decreased primarily from severe lung involvement, pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension
Diagnosis Clinical diagnosis by Rheumatologist –Raynaud’s –Swollen fingers and/or skin thickening of hands/face –Esophageal symptoms-GERD. –Other organs- Small intestines Pulmonary Fibrosis Pulmonary Hypertension Cardiac or Kidney involvement
Laboratory Diagnosis Laboratory - not required –Antibodies helpful for prognosis, but not necessary for diagnosis ( even ANA can be negative) –There can be false positives, particularly slightly positive tests –GI x-rays supportive but not required for diagnosis
Clinical features associated with limited and diffuse scleroderma Limited cutaneous Diffuse cutaneous Raynaud’s -1st symptom, Raynaud’s often delayed alone for many years Acute onset, a lot of Milder general symptoms constitutional symptoms Milder joint symptoms Arthralgias, carpal tunnel Tendon friction rubs FINGERs HANDs Puffy FINGERs Swollen, puffy HANDs Limited skin thickening Early diffuse skin Anti-centromere antibody Anti-Scl 70 antibody Anti-RNA polymerase III
Evaluation of Skin Thickening Measuring skin thickness. Rodnan Skin Score 17 different sites- Score 0 to 3 Total 51 Limited - <12 Diffuse >12 Other Measures- Health Assessment Questionnaire Medsger Severity Scale (only research)
Joint and Tendon Hand swelling, joint pain and stiffness- fingers, wrists, swelling/puffiness, other joints also Contractures- hands, wrists, hips, shoulders, elbows. Acroosteolysis- deformity causing loss of function Tendon rubs- painful- hands, arms, ankles, knees
Systemic Sclerosis- Multisystem Disease
Gastrointestinal Involvement Esophageal- trouble swallowing, heartburn, reflux, potential aspiration Stomach –bloating, inability to eat full meals, need to eat small frequent meals Small Intestine- malabsorption, diarrhea, pseudo obstruction, bacterial overgrowth, weight loss, need for hyperalimentation. Large Intestine- constipation, rectal prolapse Rectum- fecal incontinence
Pulmonary Fibrosis Shortness of breath with activity Fatigue with activity Pulmonary function tests- Decreased FVC, TLC and DLCO, restrictive disease CT scan of lung- scarring, honeycombing Begins early in disease and progresses slowly or rapidly, major cause of death
Pulmonary Hypertension Shortness of breath and fatigue with exercise Occurs later in illness More common in limited scleroderma Low DLCO on PFTs, and high PAP on echo Most common cause of death
Heart and Kidney Less common but more serious Heart- Pericarditis, pericardial effusion, cardiomyopathy, rhythm problems, heart failure Kidney- Malignant hypertension, kidney failure, dialysis.
Disability in Limited Scleroderma –Usually after a long history of Raynaud’s, (unless digital ulcers) –Pain, fatigue, GI symptoms –Loss of hand function – digital ulcers, loss of mobility/dexterity, fine motion –Fatigue/shortness of breath- anemia, weight loss, GI, pulmonary fibrosis/hypertension.
Special Situations Raynaud’s – can be disabling without ulcers, if job is outdoors, requires cold exposure (meat cutter) Limited skin- can be disabling even without contractures if very swollen, late acroosteolysis, need for fine motion GI –can be very disabling - with severe reflux, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, fatigue, inability to eat, weight loss
Disability in Diffuse Scleroderma –Early in Disease- mostly from progressive skin thickening, pain, fatigue, weight loss, contractures, digital ulcers. –Pulmonary fibrosis –Heart and Kidney
Special Consideration Most diffuse scleroderma patients have enough problems that they are disabled. While some diffuse scleroderma patients are able to continue working, it is usually because they are professionals and have a very flexible work situation.