2TYPES OF MUSCLE There are 3 types of muscle: - Involuntary (smooth) CardiacVoluntary (skeletal/striated/striped).
3TYPES OF MUSCLE - INVOLUNTARY Involuntary (smooth) muscle is found in the internal organs of the body e.g. the stomach and intestines.It is not under our ‘conscious’ control but works automatically e.g. the stomach contracts automatically to digest food.
4TYPES OF MUSCLE - CARDIAC Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart.It is also involuntary and never stops working until we die e.g. the heart is always working to pump blood around the body.
5TYPES OF MUSCLE – VOLUNTARY/SKELETAL Voluntary muscle is associated with movement, and can be found all over the body attached to the skeleton.It is under ‘conscious’ controle.g. we use it when wechoose to move.This is the type of muscle that you will learn about in this unit.
6MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS ARMS AND SHOULDERS LEGS AND BOTTOM THORAX Biceps (bends arm at elbow)Triceps (straightens arm at elbow)Deltoid (abducts arm)Trapezius (shrugs shoulders)Quadriceps (straightens leg at knee)Hamstring (bends leg at knee)Gastrocnemius (raises body onto toes)Gluteus Maximus (straightens leg at hip)Pectorals (brings arms together in front of body)Abdominals (bends upper body at waist)Latissimus Dorsi (pulls elbows towards back)
7HOW MUSCLES WORKMuscles work in pairs. When one muscle contracts (the AGONIST or PRIME MOVER), the other muscle relaxes (the ANTAGONIST). This creates movement of a bone at a joint.The INSERTION of a muscle is where it attaches and resists pull.The ORIGIN of a muscle is where it attaches and exerts pull.
8HOW MUSCLES WORK A Bicep Curl in the Arm The bicep would be the prime mover/agonist.The tricep would be the antagonist.The origin of the bicep would be at the shoulder.The insertion of the bicep would be at the elbow.
9EXAMPLES OF ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES Biceps and triceps in the upper armQuadriceps and hamstring in the upper leg
10TENDONS Tendons attach muscle to bone TENDON OF INSERTION – exerts pullIn a bicep curl the tendon at the bottom of the bicep that attaches to the elbowTENDON OF ORIGIN – resists pullIn a bicep curl the tendon at the top of the bicep that attaches to the shoulder
11MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES Fast twitch fibres Fast powerful contractions Enough energy for 10seconds of exerciseAnaerobic energy systems usedE.g. weightlifting, sprinting, swimming 50m
12MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE Slow twitch fibres slower and less powerful contractionsutilise oxygen to provide energy for longeraerobic energy systems usede.g. cross country skiing, Tour de France (cycling), marathon.
13MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE Everybody has both types of fibre type It is possible to increase the efficiency that the muscle fibres work at with trainingDifferent activities use both fibre types for different amounts of timee.g. marathon runners use slow twitch fibres for most of the race but fast twitch fibres for the sprint finish
14MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE AND SPORT ACTIVITYSLOW TWITCHFAST TWITCHFOOTBALLTENNISBOXINGMost of gameShort sprintsSprinting for the ball in a rallyMost of matchDuration of matchPunching
15EFFECTS OF TRAININGHYPERTROPHY – increase in muscle size, strength and flexibilityATROPHY – decrease in muscle size, strength and flexibility (wasting of the muscle)
16EFFECTS OF TRAINING MARATHON RUNNER SPRINTER slow twitch muscle fibres adapt to utilise energy more efficiently and for longer periods of timedelays the onset of muscle fatigueas little muscle bulk as possibleSPRINTERmore muscle fast twitch fibres are generated (muscle bulk) to give more power outputmuscles are able to maximise stored energy to give greater bursts of all-out activity