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MUSCLES. TYPES OF MUSCLE There are 3 types of muscle:There are 3 types of muscle: - Involuntary (smooth) –Cardiac –Voluntary (skeletal/ striated/striped).

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Presentation on theme: "MUSCLES. TYPES OF MUSCLE There are 3 types of muscle:There are 3 types of muscle: - Involuntary (smooth) –Cardiac –Voluntary (skeletal/ striated/striped)."— Presentation transcript:

1 MUSCLES

2 TYPES OF MUSCLE There are 3 types of muscle:There are 3 types of muscle: - Involuntary (smooth) –Cardiac –Voluntary (skeletal/ striated/striped).

3 TYPES OF MUSCLE - INVOLUNTARY Involuntary (smooth) muscle is found in the internal organs of the body e.g. the stomach and intestines.Involuntary (smooth) muscle is found in the internal organs of the body e.g. the stomach and intestines. It is not under our ‘conscious’ control but works automatically e.g. the stomach contracts automatically to digest food.It is not under our ‘conscious’ control but works automatically e.g. the stomach contracts automatically to digest food.

4 TYPES OF MUSCLE - CARDIAC Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart.Cardiac muscle is only found in the heart. It is also involuntary and never stops working until we die e.g. the heart is always working to pump blood around the body.It is also involuntary and never stops working until we die e.g. the heart is always working to pump blood around the body.

5 TYPES OF MUSCLE – VOLUNTARY/SKELETAL Voluntary muscle is associated with movement, and can be found all over the body attached to the skeleton.Voluntary muscle is associated with movement, and can be found all over the body attached to the skeleton. It is under ‘conscious’ controlIt is under ‘conscious’ control e.g. we use it when we choose to move. This is the type of muscle that you will learn about in this unit.This is the type of muscle that you will learn about in this unit.

6 MAJOR MUSCLE GROUPS ARMS AND SHOULDERS LEGS AND BOTTOM THORAX Biceps (bends arm at elbow)Biceps (bends arm at elbow) Triceps (straightens arm at elbow)Triceps (straightens arm at elbow) Deltoid (abducts arm)Deltoid (abducts arm) Trapezius (shrugs shoulders)Trapezius (shrugs shoulders) Quadriceps (straightens leg at knee)Quadriceps (straightens leg at knee) Hamstring (bends leg at knee)Hamstring (bends leg at knee) Gastrocnemius (raises body onto toes)Gastrocnemius (raises body onto toes) Gluteus Maximus (straightens leg at hip)Gluteus Maximus (straightens leg at hip) Pectorals (brings arms together in front of body)Pectorals (brings arms together in front of body) Abdominals (bends upper body at waist)Abdominals (bends upper body at waist) Latissimus Dorsi (pulls elbows towards back)Latissimus Dorsi (pulls elbows towards back)

7 HOW MUSCLES WORK Muscles work in pairs. When one muscle contracts (the AGONIST or PRIME MOVER), the other muscle relaxes (the ANTAGONIST). This creates movement of a bone at a joint.Muscles work in pairs. When one muscle contracts (the AGONIST or PRIME MOVER), the other muscle relaxes (the ANTAGONIST). This creates movement of a bone at a joint. The INSERTION of a muscle is where it attaches and resists pull.The INSERTION of a muscle is where it attaches and resists pull. The ORIGIN of a muscle is where it attaches and exerts pull.The ORIGIN of a muscle is where it attaches and exerts pull.

8 HOW MUSCLES WORK A Bicep Curl in the ArmA Bicep Curl in the Arm The bicep would be the prime mover/agonist.The bicep would be the prime mover/agonist. The tricep would be the antagonist.The tricep would be the antagonist. The origin of the bicep would be at the shoulder.The origin of the bicep would be at the shoulder. The insertion of the bicep would be at the elbow.The insertion of the bicep would be at the elbow.

9 EXAMPLES OF ANTAGONISTIC MUSCLES Biceps and triceps in the upper armBiceps and triceps in the upper arm Quadriceps and hamstring in the upper leg

10 TENDONS Tendons attach muscle to boneTendons attach muscle to bone TENDON OF INSERTION – exerts pullTENDON OF INSERTION – exerts pull –In a bicep curl the tendon at the bottom of the bicep that attaches to the elbow TENDON OF ORIGIN – resists pullTENDON OF ORIGIN – resists pull –In a bicep curl the tendon at the top of the bicep that attaches to the shoulder

11 MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES Fast twitch fibresFast twitch fibres –Fast powerful contractions –Enough energy for 10seconds of exercise –Anaerobic energy systems used –E.g. weightlifting, sprinting, swimming 50m

12 MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE Slow twitch fibresSlow twitch fibres –slower and less powerful contractions –utilise oxygen to provide energy for longer –aerobic energy systems used –e.g. cross country skiing, Tour de France (cycling), marathon.

13 MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE Everybody has both types of fibre typeEverybody has both types of fibre type It is possible to increase the efficiency that the muscle fibres work at with trainingIt is possible to increase the efficiency that the muscle fibres work at with training Different activities use both fibre types for different amounts of timeDifferent activities use both fibre types for different amounts of time –e.g. marathon runners use slow twitch fibres for most of the race but fast twitch fibres for the sprint finish

14 MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE AND SPORT ACTIVITY SLOW TWITCH FAST TWITCH FOOTBALL TENNIS BOXING Most of game Short sprints Most of match Sprinting for the ball in a rally Duration of match Punching

15 EFFECTS OF TRAINING HYPERTROPHY – increase in muscle size, strength and flexibilityHYPERTROPHY – increase in muscle size, strength and flexibility ATROPHY – decrease in muscle size, strength and flexibility (wasting of the muscle)ATROPHY – decrease in muscle size, strength and flexibility (wasting of the muscle)

16 EFFECTS OF TRAINING MARATHON RUNNERMARATHON RUNNER –slow twitch muscle fibres adapt to utilise energy more efficiently and for longer periods of time –delays the onset of muscle fatigue –as little muscle bulk as possible SPRINTERSPRINTER –more muscle fast twitch fibres are generated (muscle bulk) to give more power output –muscles are able to maximise stored energy to give greater bursts of all-out activity


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