Inspection: Toe Postures Claw Toes Hammer Toes Morton’s Toes Hallux Abducto Valgus
Inspection: Arches Pes Planus : “Flat Feet” Pes Cavus: High arches
Ankle Anatomy - Bones A. Lateral Malleolus B. Distal Tibiofibular Joint C. Fibula D. Interosseous Membrane E. Proximal Tibiofibular Joint F. Head of Fibula G. Lateral Condyle H. Intercondylar Eminence I. Medial Condyle J. Tibial Tuberosity K. Anterior Crest L. Tibia M. Medial Malleolus
Ankle Anatomy - Ligaments Ligament: Connects bones to other bones.
Ankle Anatomy – Muscles Tendon: Connects muscle to bone.
Injury Overview Sprain: Stretching or tearing of ligamentous or capsular tissue. Strain: Stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. Tendinitis: Inflammation of the muscle tendon. Fracture: A break in bone or cartilage. Dislocation: Disassociation of the joint’s articulating surfaces caused by forces that rupture many of the joint’s soft tissue restraints. Stress Fracture: A fracture caused by repetitive stress, as may occur in sports, strenuous exercise, or heavy physical labor.
Foot Injuries Plantar Fasciitis –Inflammation of the plantar fascia –MOI: Acute: Forced dorsiflexion with toe extension Chronic: Increased activity, additional running distance, changing surface, and/or using new/different shoes
Foot Injuries First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Sprain (“Turf Toe”) –Sprain of the 1 st MTP joint. –MOI: Hyperextension of the 1 st MTP joint.
Ankle Injuries Inversion Ankle Sprain –MOI: Inversion, plantarflexion, or talor rotation in any combination Eversion Ankle Sprain –MOI: Eversion and/or rotation Syndesmosis Sprains (“High Ankle Sprains”) –MOI: External rotation of the talus and/or dorsiflexion
Ankle Injuries Achilles Tendon Rupture –Rupture of the Achilles tendon –MOI: Forceful plantarflexion with eccentric loading (usually the result of eccentric loading or plyometric contraction of the calf musculature) Achilles Tendinitis –Inflammation of the Achilles tendon –MOI: Overuse or secondary to acute trauma (example: a blow to the tendon), improperly fitting shoes rubbing on the tendon may also activate the inflammatory response