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UNBONDED PRE- STRESSED CONNECTIONS Prof. John F. Stanton University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA The ROSE School, Pavia. June 2009

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REFERENCE DOCUMENT Design Guidelines for Precast Concrete Seismic Structural Systems John F. Stanton & Suzanne D. Nakaki PRESSS Report No. 01/03-09 Available from PCI (and on Rose School website)

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UNBONDED PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FRAME: GOALS Zero residual drift (ZRD) –Frame returns to vertical after earthquake Damped response –Damping restricts peak drift Little damage even in a large earthquake –Building can be re-occupied quickly

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POSSIBLE CONFIGURATIONS: (Continuous beams)

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POSSIBLE CONFIGURATIONS: (Continuous columns)

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CONFIGURATIONS Continuous Columns –Often used by precasters Continuous Beams –Long Heavy Beams –Columns must be accurately placed for bars to fit

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REINFORCEMENT CONFIGURATIONS Unbonded prestressing only –Simple to construct, but no hysteretic damping. –Damping could be supplied by external devices or RC frames in parallel with UBPT frame. UB prestressing + rebar = “Hybrid Frame” –Internal hysteresis (damping) supplied by rebar –All-in-one package.

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UBPT Prestressed-only Frame Shown with post-tensioned beams, multi-storey columns. Requires post-tensioning on site. Easy fit-up. Post-tensioning tendon (unbonded) Post- tensioning anchorage

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UBPT Prestressed-only Frame Pre-stressing tendon Bonded region Unbonded region Shown with pretensioned beams, one-storey columns. Can prestress in plant. Columns must be accurately placed.

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UBPT Prestressed-only Frame Components Unbonded PT tendon Grout

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Hybrid Frame Components Unbonded PT tendon Bonded Rebar Rebar locally debonded Grout

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Deformed Shape

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Hybrid Frame Components (Courtesy Nakaki Bashaw Group) Pre-tensioned strands Beam rebar (not continuous) Sleeves for column bars (grouted) Grout bed at interface Column bar splices Only the pre-tensioned strands cross the interface

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Hybrid Frame Components (Courtesy Nakaki Bashaw Group) Mild steel (A706) (grouted) Unbonded region Post Tensioned Tendon (ungrouted) Fiber Reinforced Grout

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UBPT FRAME CONCEPT PT tendon provides strength PT provides elastic restoring force Damping is minimal (use 5% critical)

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NON-LINEAR ELASTIC BEHAVIOR LINEARNONLINEAR ELASTIC INELASTIC Elastic: Load and unload along the same path Inelastic: Load and unload along different paths Linear: Load/unload path is a straight line Nonlinear: Load/unload paths are not straight.

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Hybrid Frame combines both features Force - Deflection Returns to vertical Nonlinear elastic Low damping Residual drift Nonlinear inelastic High damping PT only Rebar only

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Hysteresis Loops - Combinations 100/0 25/750/100 50/5075/25

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DESIGN PROCEDURE Rational design procedure Design forces same as cast-in-place concrete SMRF Explicit evaluation of drift capacity Design of other parts of frame: per code

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ASSUMPTIONS All deformation occurs at the interface, not in the beam.All deformation occurs at the interface, not in the beam. PT is unbonded the entire length of the frame, except for bonded region at each end.PT is unbonded the entire length of the frame, except for bonded region at each end. cgp is at mid beam-height.cgp is at mid beam-height.

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LIMIT STATES We need to define limit states at which the moment strength will be computed. Nominal moment strength:Nominal moment strength: Corresponds to the design moment.Corresponds to the design moment. Used to size the reinforcement at the interfaceUsed to size the reinforcement at the interface Maximum probable strengthMaximum probable strength Corresponds to the Maximum Credible earthquakeCorresponds to the Maximum Credible earthquake Forms the basis for Capacity Design forces for adjacent elements.Forms the basis for Capacity Design forces for adjacent elements.

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NOMINAL STRENGTH LIMIT STATE Smaller of Onset of strain hardening in mild steel (if any).Onset of strain hardening in mild steel (if any). Yield of PT steel.Yield of PT steel. Comparable to nominal strength of reinforced concrete frame

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MAXIMUM PROBABLE STRENGTH LIMIT STATE Smaller of :Smaller of : Strain at peak strength of mild steel.Strain at peak strength of mild steel. Yield of PT steel.Yield of PT steel. System must have at least 3.5% drift capacity at MPS limit state.

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