Anxiety Disorders: Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder Module 30: Anxiety and Mood Disorders
Generalized Anxiety Disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by disruptive levels of persistent, unexplained feelings of apprehension and tenseness –Until pharmaceutical companies began a hard- sell TV ad campaign for drugs to combat it, many people had never heard of it. –Most of us have the symptoms they identify –Effexor and Paxil, Prozac and Zolof are all used to treat GAD and major depression; also social phobia & panic disorder
Symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Must have at least three of the following: –Restlessness –Feeling on edge –Difficulty concentrating/mind going blank –Irritability –Muscle Tension –Sleep Disturbance
Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by sudden bouts of intense, unexplained anxiety Often associated with physical symptoms like choking sensations or shortness of breath Panic attacks may happen several times a day People who have GAD often have panic attacks
Anxiety Disorders: Phobia Module 30: Anxiety and Mood Disorders
Phobia An anxiety disorder characterized by disruptive, irrational fears of specific objects or situations The fear must be both irrational and disruptive. –They are considered anxiety disorders because they focus general feelings of anxiety onto a fear object or situation. –Names are formed by combining the Greek word for the object with phobia (which is the Greek word for fear).
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted, repetitive thoughts and actions Obsessions – repetitive thoughts Compulsions – repetitive actions The obsessions/compulsions begin to take control of the person’s life.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder An anxiety disorder characterized by reliving a severely upsetting event in unwanted recurring memories (flashbacks) and dreams –Military, rape victims abused children, rescue workers. –Intense stress is the trigger; symptoms are nightmares, persistent fears, difficulty relating normally with others, troubling memories & flashbacks
Anxiety Disorders: Causes of Anxiety Disorders Module 30: Anxiety and Mood Disorders
Biological Factors Hereditary factors may result in a predisposition for developing anxiety disorders (fearful parents are likely to have fearful children, though the fear, itself, can be different). Twin studies. Brain functions appear to be different in an anxiety disorder patient *more activity in the frontal lobe Evolutionary factors may lead to anxiety disorders * dangerous animals, heights, storms and threats – people who didn’t have a healthy dose of fear didn’t survive!
Learning Factors Through classical conditioning people may associate fear with an object (Little Albert, infant who learned to fear white rats (and all soft animals), paired the rat with a loud noise)). Observational learning--watching another experiencing fearfulness--may result in developing fear (parent is afraid of thunder and reacts, the child may develop the same fear). Fear of an object may be reinforced when by avoiding the feared objects (afraid of heights? Can reduce the fear by avoiding heights, so will avoid heights in the future).
The Mind Watch “The Mind” – Mood Disorders: Hereditary Factors Complete “The Fear Survey” –What would life be like without fear? Can you come up with some scenarios where fear is detrimental and useful to daily life? If fear weren’t an issue, how would those situations be different?
Mood Disorders Module 30: Anxiety and Mood Disorders
Mood Disorders Classification of disorders where there is a disturbance in the person’s emotions Major types of mood disorders include: –Major Depressive Disorder –Bipolar Disorder
Mania Period of abnormally high emotion and activity –When I start going into a high, I no longer feel like an ordinary housewife. Instead, I feel I am my most creative self. I can write poetry easily. I can compose melodies without effort. I see myself as being able to accomplish a great deal for my family & others. I feel pleasure, a sense of euphoria or elation. I want it to last forever. I don’t seem to need much sleep. I’ve lost weight and feel healthy, and I like myself. I would like to help people with problems similar to mine so they won’t feel hopeless (587).
Major Depressive Disorder A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences at least two weeks of –depressed moods, –diminished interest in activities, and –other symptoms, such as feelings of worthlessness –recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Bipolar Disorder A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness of depression and the overexcited and unreasonably optimistic state of mania Formerly called manic-depressive disorder Many times will follow a cyclical pattern –Mark Twain, Vincent van Gogh
Coping with Loneliness Four Main Strategies Social Passivity – sleeping, drinking, overeating, and watching tv Social Contact – calling or visiting a friend Active Solitude – studying, reading, exercising, or going to a movie Distractions – spending money and going shopping.
Mood Disorders: Causes of Mood Disorders Module 30: Anxiety and Mood Disorders
Biological Factors Mood disorders have a hereditary nature to them –One twin has major depressive disorder, the other will have a 50% chance; bipolar? 70%. Depressed individuals tend to have depressed brains. –PET scans indicate less activity during periods of depression.
Heredity and Depression Play “Mood Disorders: Hereditary Factors” (6:11) Segment #32 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2 nd edition).
Social-Cognitive Factors Depression may be a variation of learned helplessness. Depressed individuals attribute events using the following characteristics: –Stable: the bad situation will last for a long time –Internal: they are at fault –Global: all of life is bad
Moods Mood flows from a complex interaction of biological and social cognitive factors. These factors influence one another and are influenced by external events & internal moods. Attempts to improve mood can focus on controlling the environment, prescribing medications to change brain chemistry, or changing the way the person thinks.