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Lymphatic System and Immunity

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1 Lymphatic System and Immunity
Describe the structure of the lymphatic system. Analyze the function of the lymphatic system. Identify the characteristics and treatment of common lymphatic disorders. Apply standard precautions.

2 Bell Ringer Complete the first column o the Anticipation Guide. WITHOUT the Book! Then Read…. THE PAGE NUMBERS are

3 Get out your work from Friday…I need to see it!

4 Bell…. Pop Quiz List one function of the Lymphatic System Put your name on the paper and pass it up!

5 List one function of the Lymphatic System

6 What the heck does it do….
Transports digested fat from the intestine to the bloodstream Removes and destroys toxic substances Resists the spread of disease throughout the body. Functions:

7 Structures…. LYMPH – fluid that goes between capillary blood and tissues. LYMPH VESSELS – transport excess tissue fluid back into circulatory system. LYMPH NODES – produce lymphocytes, filter out harmful bacteria. SPLEEN – produces lymphocytes and monocytes, blood reservoir, recycles old red cells. Thymus gland – produces T-LYMPHOCYTES

8 LYMPH Straw-colored fluid (similar to plasma)
INTERSTITIAL FLUID or tissue fluid because it is in the spaces between cells Composed of H2O, lymphocytes, some granulocytes, O2, digested nutrients, hormones, salts, CO2 and urea. NO red blood cells or protein molecules (too large) Carries digested food, O2 and hormones to cells Carries wastes back to capillaries for excretion Since the lymphatic system has no pump, skeletal muscle action squeezes lymph along Valves prevent backward flow

9 LYMPH VESSELS Closely parallel veins
Located in almost all tissues and organs that have blood vessels Tissue lymph enters small lymph vessels which drain into larger vessels called lymphatics – they flow into one of two large, main lymphatics – the 1)THORACIC DUCT and 2)right lymphatic duct. 1)THORACIC DUCT gets lymph from left side of chest, head and neck, abdominal area and lower limbs  left subclavian vein  superior vena cava  heart. 2)right lymphatic duct-lymph from right arm, right side of head and upper trunk. Lymph flows only in one direction – from body organs to the heart.

10 Lymph circulation showing interaction with blood vessels and cells…

11 Regional lymphatics and drainage patterns of the left breast
Palpation of lymph nodes: Anterior cervical chain

12 LYMPH NODES Tiny, oval shaped - size of pinhead to size of almond
Located alone or grouped Site for lymph production and filter for screening out harmful substances If substance can’t be destroyed, node becomes inflamed

13 Bell…… Make sure this is complete!...Workbook pgs 191-192 A and B
Get out your packets/outlines Tonsils Spleen Thymus Small Group Project You are expected to participate You are expected to present Yes, this counts as a grade! You have 20 minutes to complete. Some of you are done,.stay in your seat!

14 TONSILS Masses of lymphatic tissue that produce lymphocytes and filter bacteria – they get smaller in size as person gets older

15 SPLEEN The spleen performs many important functions related to the immune system. Sac-like mass of lymphatic tissue Upper left abdominal cavity, just below diaphragm Forms lymphocytes and monocytes Filters blood Stores large amounts of RBCs – contracts during vigorous exercise or loss of blood, to release RBCs Destroys or removes old or fragile RBCs

16 THYMUS GLAND Upper, anterior thorax, above the heart
Thymus is also considered an endocrine gland

17 Bellringer Complete 3rd column of Anticipation Guide…Grade yourself!
Complete workbook 191 A-F Complete 1-5 pg 304

18 Bellringer QUIETLY Answer Review questions…1-5 on page 326 in text

19 Bell….. Get out the outline and turn to page 292 in your textbook

20 Bell Text page & 10 You will be taking notes during the presentations on the forms on your desks

21 Define Normal Defense/individual’s immune system
What is it’s unique feature? Page 314, text ***Chain of Infection Group GO!

22 Small Group Project You are expected to participate
You are expected to present Yes, this counts as a grade!

23 Bell Text 327 Case study

24 – the body’s ability to resist bacterial invasion and disease.
2 general types – natural and acquired. Immunity

25 NATURAL IMMUNITY – at birth, inherited and permanent. Includes:
Unbroken skin Mucus and tears Blood phagocytes Local inflammation

26 ACQUIRED IMMUNITY – body’s reaction to invaders

Acquired artificially by injecting antibodies to protect from a specific disease Immediate immunity Lasts 3-5 weeks Used when someone exposed to measures, tetanus, infectious hepatitis Mother provides newborn with some passive immunity

– lasts longer, two types NATURAL ACQUIRED IMMUNITY – result of having had and recovered from a disease. For example, a child who had measles will usually not get it again – child’s body has manufactured antibodies. ARTIFICIAL ACQUIRED IMMUNITY – comes from being vaccinated

29 IMMUNIZATION – artificial resistance to a particular infection by artificial means Antigen injected into a person to stimulate production of antibodies

30 Go to Thinking Map Immunity

31 Assignment Complete worksheet from packet “Immunity Chart”
Text page 326 matching From overhead notes complete the outline

32 Bell Workbook complete pages J-M

33 Bell…. Using “Immunity Chart" and text pages 314 and 315 complete workbook pg 195-G and H

34 Viruses: Smallest organisms Electron Microscope
Viruses: Smallest organisms Electron Microscope. Cannot reproduce unless inside another living cell Three Diseases… Hepatitis B-HBV virus Transmitted blood body secretions Liver destruction Vaccine Viruses: Smallest organisms Electron Microscope. Cannot reproduce unless inside another living cell Hepatitis C-HCV AIDS/HIV-Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virus Cannot fight cancers and infections No cure

35 OSHA passed regulations in 1991 requiring all health care facility employers to: -        Determine which employees will have exposure to blood and body fluids -        Provide Hepatitis B vaccine free to employees with exposure risk (or signed refusal) -        Provide personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, gowns, lab coats, masks, and face shields -        Provide adequate hand washing facilities and supplies -        Ensure clean & safe work environment -        Follow decontamination protocol for contaminated surfaces -        Dispose of infectious wastes correctly -        No eating, drinking, smoking, handling contact lenses, applying lip balm, etc. in risk area

36 Skills…very serious responsibility

37 Disorders of the Lymphatic System
ADENITIS – swelling in the lymph glands TONSILLITIS In childhood, they may become infected, enlarged, and cause difficulty swallowing Surgery done in extreme cases LYMPHADENITIS – enlargement of the lymph nodes, occurs when infection is present and body is attempting to fight off the infection. HODGKIN’S DISEASE – cancer of the lymph nodes, painless swelling of lymph nodes is early symptom. Rx – chemotherapy and radiation

Caused by virus Frequently in young adults and children Spread by oral contact (kissing) Symptoms – enlarged lymph nodes, fever, physical and mental fatigue,  leukocytes Rx – bed rest

39 HYPERSENSITIVITY When the body’s immune system fails to protect itself against foreign material, and instead, the antibodies formed irritate certain body cells. An abnormal response to a drug or allergen. An ALLERGEN is an antigen that causes allergic responses. (Examples of allergens – ragweed, penicillin, bee stings, foods, etc.)

40 ANAPHYLAXIS severe, sometimes fatal allergic reaction
Antigen-antibody reaction stimulates a massive secretion of histamine Symptoms – breathing problems, headache, facial swelling, falling blood pressure, stomach cramps, and vomiting Rx – adrenaline

41 AIDS/HIV Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Caused by HTLV-III (human T-lymphotrophic virus type III) Commonly caused HIV or Human immunodeficiency virus. Affects not only homosexual males but all populations The patient with AIDS cannot fight off cancers and most infections. Three responses to HIV infection: AIDS ARC (AIDS-related complex) Asymptomatic infection Screening tests for HIV/AIDS are available Most severe type of HIV infection Subject to OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS – a healthy person would fight off these infections, but a person with AIDS has a compromised immune response. Symptoms of AIDS Prolonged fatigue Persistent fevers or night sweats Persistent, unexplained cough Thick coating in throat or on tongue Easy bruising, unexplained bleeding Appearance of purple lesions on mucous membranes or skin that don’t go away Chronic diarrhea Shortness of breath Unexplained lymphadenopathy Unexplained weight loss, 10 pounds or more, in less than 2 months Incubation period: 1 month to12 years

42 The AIDS Patient Sometimes treated as outcasts
Healthcare worker should be supportive Use of gloves for normal patient contact is not necessary

Has HIV but not AIDS and develops other conditions such as: Chronic diarrhea Chronic lymphadenopathy Unexplained weight loss If life threatening opportunistic infections develop, then individual is said to have AIDS ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION - Has HIV but no symptoms.

44 High-Risk Groups for AIDS
– EVERYONE who participates in risky behaviors. Transmission by: Sex with someone who is HIV positive Sharing needles with infected IV drug users At birth from infected mother Cannot be spread by: Casual contact Through air, feces, food, urine or water Coughing, sneezing, embracing, shaking hands and sharing eating utensils Prevention: Avoid risky behaviors Standard precautions

45 Assignments/expectations for Monday!….
Take 10 notes from video Test is on Tues., covers chapters 15 and 16 Study with the disk in you book (at home) Return to your presentation/ Small groups *each group may submit 2 questions for clarification! Write # of your question on master-up front. Study the mult. Choice Questions!

46 Bell Your papers from yesterday are up front!
Complete K Chapter 15 Page 197 in workbook These are your choices (you may have to use a medical dictionary to clarify) Bronchitis adenitis Anemia melanoma Some types of cancer Colitis emphysema thrombocytopenia

47 Bell List at least 6 times when hands must be washed.

48 STANDARD PRECAUTIONS Guidelines to be used in patient care setting
Must be used when there is contact with blood, any body fluid (except sweat), mucous membranes and non-intact skin. Hand washing – the single most effective way to prevent infection. Wash hands after touching body fluids, even if gloves are worn. Wash hands immediately after removing gloves, between patient contacts. Use a plain (non-antimicrobial) soap Wash for a minimum of 20 seconds Gloves – worn when touching blood, body fluids, etc. Mask, eye protection, face shield and gown – during patient care activities that may generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, etc. Patient care equipment and linens – handle with care, don’t let it touch your or clothing, clean or discard appropriately.

49 Occupational Health and Blood Bourne Pathogens
Beware of needles! Never recap used needles. Dispose of all needles and sharp objects in sharps container. Use mouthpieces, resuscitation bags, or other ventilation devices as alternative to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. A patient who contaminates the environment should be in a private room or relatively isolated area.

50 CBS Sunday Morning Video clip

51 Turn in your Essay, now. Up front!
Bell…Workbook (from packet) f,g,h. & Workbook 208 K

52 Bell 4 of you that were out/left early Thursday…bring your work up NOW! Text 327( chapter 15) Case study****answer even only! Write your first and last name on your packet…bring it up!

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