Presentation on theme: "Lymphatic System and Immunity"— Presentation transcript:
1Lymphatic System and Immunity Describe the structure of the lymphatic system.Analyze the function of the lymphatic system.Identify the characteristics and treatment of common lymphatic disorders.Apply standard precautions.
2Bell RingerComplete the first column o the Anticipation Guide. WITHOUT the Book! Then Read….THE PAGE NUMBERS are
6What the heck does it do…. Transports digested fat from the intestine to the bloodstreamRemoves and destroys toxic substancesResists the spread of disease throughout the body.Functions:
7Structures….LYMPH – fluid that goes between capillary blood and tissues.LYMPH VESSELS – transport excess tissue fluid back into circulatory system.LYMPH NODES – produce lymphocytes, filter out harmful bacteria.SPLEEN – produces lymphocytes and monocytes, blood reservoir, recycles old red cells.Thymus gland – produces T-LYMPHOCYTES
8LYMPH Straw-colored fluid (similar to plasma) INTERSTITIAL FLUID or tissue fluid because it is in the spaces between cellsComposed of H2O, lymphocytes, some granulocytes, O2, digested nutrients, hormones, salts, CO2 and urea.NO red blood cells or protein molecules (too large)Carries digested food, O2 and hormones to cellsCarries wastes back to capillaries for excretionSince the lymphatic system has no pump, skeletal muscle action squeezes lymph alongValves prevent backward flow
9LYMPH VESSELS Closely parallel veins Located in almost all tissues and organs that have blood vesselsTissue lymph enters small lymph vessels which drain into larger vessels called lymphatics – they flow into one of two large, main lymphatics – the 1)THORACIC DUCT and 2)right lymphatic duct.1)THORACIC DUCT gets lymph from left side of chest, head and neck, abdominal area and lower limbs left subclavian vein superior vena cava heart.2)right lymphatic duct-lymph from right arm, right side of head and upper trunk.Lymph flows only in one direction – from body organs to the heart.
10Lymph circulation showing interaction with blood vessels and cells…
11Regional lymphatics and drainage patterns of the left breast Palpation of lymph nodes: Anterior cervical chain
12LYMPH NODES Tiny, oval shaped - size of pinhead to size of almond Located alone or groupedSite for lymph production and filter for screening out harmful substancesIf substance can’t be destroyed, node becomes inflamed
13Bell…… Make sure this is complete!...Workbook pgs 191-192 A and B Get out your packets/outlinesTonsilsSpleenThymusSmall Group ProjectYou are expected to participateYou are expected to presentYes, this counts as a grade!You have 20 minutes to complete. Some of you are done,.stay in your seat!
14TONSILSMasses of lymphatic tissue that produce lymphocytes and filter bacteria – they get smaller in size as person gets older
15SPLEENThe spleen performs many important functions related to the immune system.Sac-like mass of lymphatic tissueUpper left abdominal cavity, just below diaphragmForms lymphocytes and monocytesFilters bloodStores large amounts of RBCs – contracts during vigorous exercise or loss of blood, to release RBCsDestroys or removes old or fragile RBCs
16THYMUS GLAND Upper, anterior thorax, above the heart Thymus is also considered an endocrine gland
27PASSIVE ACQUIRED IMMUNITY Acquired artificially by injecting antibodies to protect from a specific diseaseImmediate immunityLasts 3-5 weeksUsed when someone exposed to measures, tetanus, infectious hepatitisMother provides newborn with some passive immunity
28ACTIVE ACQUIRED IMMUNITY – lasts longer, two typesNATURAL ACQUIRED IMMUNITY – result of having had and recovered from a disease. For example, a child who had measles will usually not get it again – child’s body has manufactured antibodies.ARTIFICIAL ACQUIRED IMMUNITY – comes from being vaccinated
29IMMUNIZATION– artificial resistance to a particular infection by artificial meansAntigen injected into a person to stimulate production of antibodies
33Bell….Using “Immunity Chart" and text pages 314 and 315 complete workbook pg 195-G and H
34Viruses: Smallest organisms Electron Microscope Viruses: Smallest organisms Electron Microscope. Cannot reproduce unless inside another living cellThree Diseases… Hepatitis B-HBV virusTransmitted blood body secretionsLiver destructionVaccine Viruses: Smallest organisms Electron Microscope. Cannot reproduce unless inside another living cellHepatitis C-HCVAIDS/HIV-Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virusCannot fight cancers and infectionsNo cure
35OSHApassed regulations in 1991 requiring all health care facility employers to:- Determine which employees will have exposure to blood and body fluids- Provide Hepatitis B vaccine free to employees with exposure risk (or signed refusal)- Provide personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, gowns, lab coats, masks, and face shields- Provide adequate hand washing facilities and supplies- Ensure clean & safe work environment- Follow decontamination protocol for contaminated surfaces- Dispose of infectious wastes correctly- No eating, drinking, smoking, handling contact lenses, applying lip balm, etc. in risk area
37Disorders of the Lymphatic System ADENITIS – swelling in the lymph glandsTONSILLITISIn childhood, they may become infected, enlarged, and cause difficulty swallowingSurgery done in extreme casesLYMPHADENITIS – enlargement of the lymph nodes, occurs when infection is present and body is attempting to fight off the infection.HODGKIN’S DISEASE – cancer of the lymph nodes, painless swelling of lymph nodes is early symptom. Rx – chemotherapy and radiation
38INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS Caused by virusFrequently in young adults and childrenSpread by oral contact (kissing)Symptoms – enlarged lymph nodes, fever, physical and mental fatigue, leukocytesRx – bed rest
39HYPERSENSITIVITYWhen the body’s immune system fails to protect itself against foreign material, and instead, the antibodies formed irritate certain body cells.An abnormal response to a drug or allergen.An ALLERGEN is an antigen that causes allergic responses. (Examples of allergens – ragweed, penicillin, bee stings, foods, etc.)
40ANAPHYLAXIS severe, sometimes fatal allergic reaction Antigen-antibody reaction stimulates a massive secretion of histamineSymptoms – breathing problems, headache, facial swelling, falling blood pressure, stomach cramps, and vomitingRx – adrenaline
41AIDS/HIV Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Caused by HTLV-III (human T-lymphotrophic virus type III) Commonly caused HIV or Human immunodeficiency virus.Affects not only homosexual males but all populationsThe patient with AIDS cannot fight off cancers and most infections.Three responses to HIV infection:AIDSARC (AIDS-related complex)Asymptomatic infectionScreening tests for HIV/AIDS are availableMost severe type of HIV infectionSubject to OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS – a healthy person would fight off these infections, but a person with AIDS has a compromised immune response.Symptoms of AIDSProlonged fatiguePersistent fevers or night sweatsPersistent, unexplained coughThick coating in throat or on tongueEasy bruising, unexplained bleedingAppearance of purple lesions on mucous membranes or skin that don’t go awayChronic diarrheaShortness of breathUnexplained lymphadenopathyUnexplained weight loss, 10 pounds or more, in less than 2 monthsIncubation period: 1 month to12 years
42The AIDS Patient Sometimes treated as outcasts Healthcare worker should be supportiveUse of gloves for normal patient contact is not necessary
43AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX (ARC) Has HIV but not AIDS and develops other conditions such as:Chronic diarrheaChronic lymphadenopathyUnexplained weight lossIf life threatening opportunistic infections develop, then individual is said to have AIDSASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION - Has HIV but no symptoms.
44High-Risk Groups for AIDS – EVERYONE who participates in risky behaviors.Transmission by:Sex with someone who is HIV positiveSharing needles with infected IV drug usersAt birth from infected motherCannot be spread by:Casual contactThrough air, feces, food, urine or waterCoughing, sneezing, embracing, shaking hands and sharing eating utensilsPrevention:Avoid risky behaviorsStandard precautions
45Assignments/expectations for Monday!…. Take 10 notes from videoTest is on Tues., covers chapters 15 and 16Study with the disk in you book (at home)Return to your presentation/ Small groups*each group may submit 2 questions for clarification!Write # of your question on master-up front.Study the mult. Choice Questions!
46Bell Your papers from yesterday are up front! Complete K Chapter 15 Page 197 in workbookThese are your choices (you may have to use a medical dictionary to clarify)BronchitisadenitisAnemiamelanomaSome types of cancerColitisemphysemathrombocytopenia
47BellList at least 6 times when hands must be washed.
48STANDARD PRECAUTIONS Guidelines to be used in patient care setting Must be used when there is contact with blood, any body fluid (except sweat), mucous membranes and non-intact skin.Hand washing – the single most effective way to prevent infection.Wash hands after touching body fluids, even if gloves are worn.Wash hands immediately after removing gloves, between patient contacts.Use a plain (non-antimicrobial) soapWash for a minimum of 20 secondsGloves – worn when touching blood, body fluids, etc.Mask, eye protection, face shield and gown – during patient care activities that may generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, etc.Patient care equipment and linens – handle with care, don’t let it touch your or clothing, clean or discard appropriately.
49Occupational Health and Blood Bourne Pathogens Beware of needles!Never recap used needles.Dispose of all needles and sharp objects in sharps container.Use mouthpieces, resuscitation bags, or other ventilation devices as alternative to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.A patient who contaminates the environment should be in a private room or relatively isolated area.