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Describe the structure of the lymphatic system. Analyze the function of the lymphatic system. Identify the characteristics and treatment of common lymphatic.

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Presentation on theme: "Describe the structure of the lymphatic system. Analyze the function of the lymphatic system. Identify the characteristics and treatment of common lymphatic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Describe the structure of the lymphatic system. Analyze the function of the lymphatic system. Identify the characteristics and treatment of common lymphatic disorders. Apply standard precautions.

2 Bell Ringer  Complete the first column o the Anticipation Guide. WITHOUT the Book! Then Read….  THE PAGE NUMBERS are 310-313

3  Get out your work from Friday…I need to see it!

4  Bell….  Pop Quiz  List one function of the Lymphatic System  Put your name on the paper and pass it up!

5  List one function of the Lymphatic System

6 What the heck does it do….  Transports digested fat from the intestine to the bloodstream  Removes and destroys toxic substances  Resists the spread of disease throughout the body.

7 Structures….  LYMPH – fluid that goes between capillary blood and tissues.  LYMPH VESSELS – transport excess tissue fluid back into circulatory system.  LYMPH NODES – produce lymphocytes, filter out harmful bacteria.  SPLEEN – produces lymphocytes and monocytes, blood reservoir, recycles old red cells.  Thymus gland – produces T-LYMPHOCYTES

8  Straw-colored fluid (similar to plasma)  INTERSTITIAL FLUID or tissue fluid because it is in the spaces between cells  Composed of H2O, lymphocytes, some granulocytes, O2, digested nutrients, hormones, salts, CO2 and urea.  NO red blood cells or protein molecules (too large)  Carries digested food, O2 and hormones to cells  Carries wastes back to capillaries for excretion  Since the lymphatic system has no pump, skeletal muscle action squeezes lymph along  Valves prevent backward flow

9  Closely parallel veins  Located in almost all tissues and organs that have blood vessels  Tissue lymph enters small lymph vessels which drain into larger vessels called lymphatics – they flow into one of two large, main lymphatics – the 1)THORACIC DUCT and 2)right lymphatic duct.  1)THORACIC DUCT gets lymph from left side of chest, head and neck, abdominal area and lower limbs  left subclavian vein  superior vena cava  heart.  2)right lymphatic duct-lymph from right arm, right side of head and upper trunk.  Lymph flows only in one direction – from body organs to the heart.

10 Lymph circulation showing interaction with blood vessels and cells…

11 Palpation of lymph nodes: Anterior cervical chain Regional lymphatics and drainage patterns of the left breast

12  Tiny, oval shaped - size of pinhead to size of almond  Located alone or grouped  Site for lymph production and filter for screening out harmful substances  If substance can’t be destroyed, node becomes inflamed

13 Bell……  Make sure this is complete!...Workbook pgs 191-192 A and B  Get out your packets/outlines Tonsils Spleen Thymus Small Group Project You are expected to participate You are expected to present Yes, this counts as a grade! You have 20 minutes to complete. Some of you are done,.stay in your seat!

14  Masses of lymphatic tissue that produce lymphocytes and filter bacteria – they get smaller in size as person gets older

15  The spleen performs many important functions related to the immune system.  Sac-like mass of lymphatic tissue  Upper left abdominal cavity, just below diaphragm  Forms lymphocytes and monocytes  Filters blood  Stores large amounts of RBCs – contracts during vigorous exercise or loss of blood, to release RBCs  Destroys or removes old or fragile RBCs

16  Upper, anterior thorax, above the heart  Thymus is also considered an endocrine gland

17 Bellringer  Complete 3 rd column of Anticipation Guide…Grade yourself!  Complete workbook 191 A-F  Complete 1-5 pg 304

18 Bellringer  QUIETLY Answer Review questions…1-5 on page 326 in text

19 Bell…..  Get out the outline and turn to page 292 in your textbook

20 Bell  Text page 324 9 & 10  You will be taking notes during the presentations on the forms on your desks

21 Define  Normal Defense/individual’s immune system  What is it’s unique feature?  Page 314, text  ***Chain of Infection Group GO!

22 Small Group Project  You are expected to participate  You are expected to present  Yes, this counts as a grade!  http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id =7053834n http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id =7053834n

23 Bell  Text 327  Case study

24  – the body’s ability to resist bacterial invasion and disease.  2 general types –  natural and acquired.

25 NATURAL IMMUNITY – at birth, inherited and permanent. Includes:  Unbroken skin  Mucus and tears  Blood phagocytes  Local inflammation

26  – body’s reaction to invaders

27  Acquired artificially by injecting antibodies to protect from a specific disease  Immediate immunity  Lasts 3-5 weeks  Used when someone exposed to measures, tetanus, infectious hepatitis  Mother provides newborn with some passive immunity

28 ACTIVE ACQUIRED IMMUNITY  – lasts longer, two types  NATURAL ACQUIRED IMMUNITY – result of having had and recovered from a disease. For example, a child who had measles will usually not get it again – child’s body has manufactured antibodies.  ARTIFICIAL ACQUIRED IMMUNITY – comes from being vaccinated

29  – artificial resistance to a particular infection by artificial means  Antigen injected into a person to stimulate production of antibodies

30

31 Assignment  Complete worksheet from packet “Immunity Chart”  Text page 326 matching  From overhead notes complete the outline

32 Bell  Workbook complete pages 196-197  J-M

33 Bell….  Using “Immunity Chart" and text pages 314 and 315 complete workbook pg 195- G and H

34 Viruses: Smallest organisms Electron Microscope. Cannot reproduce unless inside another living cell  Three Diseases… Hepatitis B-HBV virus  Transmitted blood body secretions  Liver destruction  Vaccine Viruses : Smallest organisms Electron Microscope. Cannot reproduce unless inside another living cell  Hepatitis C-HCV  Transmitted blood body secretions  Liver destruction  AIDS/HIV-Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome virus  Cannot fight cancers and infections  No cure

35 OSHA  passed regulations in 1991 requiring all health care facility employers to:  - Determine which employees will have exposure to blood and body fluids  - Provide Hepatitis B vaccine free to employees with exposure risk (or signed refusal)  - Provide personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, gowns, lab coats, masks, and face shields  - Provide adequate hand washing facilities and supplies  - Ensure clean & safe work environment  - Follow decontamination protocol for contaminated surfaces  - Dispose of infectious wastes correctly  - No eating, drinking, smoking, handling contact lenses, applying lip balm, etc. in risk area

36 Skills…very serious responsibility http://www.wral.com/news/local/story/86 06924/

37  ADENITIS – swelling in the lymph glands  TONSILLITIS  In childhood, they may become infected, enlarged, and cause difficulty swallowing  Surgery done in extreme cases  LYMPHADENITIS – enlargement of the lymph nodes, occurs when infection is present and body is attempting to fight off the infection.  HODGKIN’S DISEASE – cancer of the lymph nodes, painless swelling of lymph nodes is early symptom. Rx – chemotherapy and radiation

38  Caused by virus  Frequently in young adults and children  Spread by oral contact (kissing)  Symptoms – enlarged lymph nodes, fever, physical and mental fatigue,  leukocytes  Rx – bed rest

39 HYPERSENSITIVITY  When the body’s immune system fails to protect itself against foreign material, and instead, the antibodies formed irritate certain body cells.  An abnormal response to a drug or allergen.  An ALLERGEN is an antigen that causes allergic responses. (Examples of allergens – ragweed, penicillin, bee stings, foods, etc.)

40  severe, sometimes fatal allergic reaction  Antigen-antibody reaction stimulates a massive secretion of histamine  Symptoms – breathing problems, headache, facial swelling, falling blood pressure, stomach cramps, and vomiting  Rx – adrenaline

41 AIDS/HIV  Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome  Caused by HTLV-III (human T-lymphotrophic virus type III) Commonly caused HIV or Human immunodeficiency virus.  Affects not only homosexual males but all populations  The patient with AIDS cannot fight off cancers and most infections.  Three responses to HIV infection:  AIDS  ARC (AIDS-related complex)  Asymptomatic infection  Screening tests for HIV/AIDS are available  AIDS  Most severe type of HIV infection  Subject to OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS – a healthy person would fight off these infections, but a person with AIDS has a compromised immune response.  Symptoms of AIDS  Prolonged fatigue  Persistent fevers or night sweats  Persistent, unexplained cough  Thick coating in throat or on tongue  Easy bruising, unexplained bleeding  Appearance of purple lesions on mucous membranes or skin that don’t go away  Chronic diarrhea  Shortness of breath  Unexplained lymphadenopathy  Unexplained weight loss, 10 pounds or more, in less than 2 months  Incubation period: 1 month to12 years

42 The AIDS Patient  Sometimes treated as outcasts  Healthcare worker should be supportive  Use of gloves for normal patient contact is not necessary

43 AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX (ARC)  Has HIV but not AIDS and develops other conditions such as:  Chronic diarrhea  Chronic lymphadenopathy  Unexplained weight loss  If life threatening opportunistic infections develop, then individual is said to have AIDS  ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTION - Has HIV but no symptoms.

44  – EVERYONE who participates in risky behaviors.  Transmission by:  Sex with someone who is HIV positive  Sharing needles with infected IV drug users  At birth from infected mother  Cannot be spread by:  Casual contact  Through air, feces, food, urine or water  Coughing, sneezing, embracing, shaking hands and sharing eating utensils  Prevention:  Avoid risky behaviors  Standard precautions

45 Assignments/expectations for Monday!….  Take 10 notes from video  Test is on Tues., covers chapters 15 and 16  Study with the disk in you book (at home)  Return to your presentation/ Small groups *each group may submit 2 questions for clarification!  Write # of your question on master-up front.  Study the mult. Choice Questions!

46 Bell  Your papers from yesterday are up front!  Complete K Chapter 15 Page 197 in workbook  These are your choices (you may have to use a medical dictionary to clarify)  Bronchitis  adenitis  Anemia  melanoma  Some types of cancer  Colitis  emphysema  thrombocytopenia

47 Bell  List at least 6 times when hands must be washed.

48 STANDARD PRECAUTIONS  Guidelines to be used in patient care setting  Must be used when there is contact with blood, any body fluid (except sweat), mucous membranes and non-intact skin.  Hand washing – the single most effective way to prevent infection.  Wash hands after touching body fluids, even if gloves are worn.  Wash hands immediately after removing gloves, between patient contacts.  Use a plain (non-antimicrobial) soap  Wash for a minimum of 20 seconds  Gloves – worn when touching blood, body fluids, etc.  Mask, eye protection, face shield and gown – during patient care activities that may generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, etc.  Patient care equipment and linens – handle with care, don’t let it touch your or clothing, clean or discard appropriately.

49 Occupational Health and Blood Bourne Pathogens  Beware of needles!  Never recap used needles.  Dispose of all needles and sharp objects in sharps container.  Use mouthpieces, resuscitation bags, or other ventilation devices as alternative to mouth-to- mouth resuscitation.  A patient who contaminates the environment should be in a private room or relatively isolated area.

50 CBS Sunday Morning Video clip  http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id =7053834n http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id =7053834n

51  Turn in your Essay, now. Up front!  Bell…Workbook (from packet) f,g,h.  &  Workbook 208 K

52 Bell  4 of you that were out/left early Thursday…bring your work up NOW!  Text 327( chapter 15) Case study****answer even only!  Write your first and last name on your packet…bring it up!


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