Introduction Traditionally, infertility is defined as the inability to conceive for one year. Worldwide, 10 to 14% of couples in the reproductive age group (20-40) face difficulty in conceiving 90% of infertility is treatable with advances in medicines and clinical procedures Line of treatment includes medical and surgical intervention, Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ART) or a combination of these modalities. Infertility is an extraordinarily common medical problem.
Causes of Infertility Female Anovulation (accounts for 25% of infertility) Tubal factors (accounts for 25% - 40%of infertility) Uterine & cervical factor (accounts for 10% of infertility) Immunological cases, age and other factors (accounts for 25% of infertility) Tubal factor is a common cause of infertility in our country. HSG – Septate uterus HSG – Bicornuate uterus
Causes of Infertility Male Low sperm count Low motility Poor sperm morphology Other factors such as stress varicocoele chromosomal abnormality Both female and male factors contribute to infertility.
Infertility Rise in infertility : - - increased women employment - Late marriages - Preferring weekend sex - highly stressful job - Onset of childbearing at later age.
Male Infertility Volume: 2-5ml pH: Liquefaction time: within 40 mins. Sperm Count: million/ml (WHO Criteria) Sperm motility: >50% after ½ hour. Sperm Morphology: >50% normal.
Abnormal Semen Parameters. Oligospermia: - sperm count <20 million/ml Mild: million/ml Moderate: -5-10million/ml Severe: -<5 million/ml. Azoospermia: - Absence of single sperm in ejaculate. Asthenospermia: -Sperm motility <50% Teratospermia: - <4% normal sperms associated with poor fertility prognosis.
POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME Heterogeneous complex condition – Hyperandrogenemia and chronic anovulation. Associated with Hirsuitism, Hyperinsulinemia & insulin resistance. Commonest cause of anovulation. 50% patient of PCOS need assistance in reproduction.
Epidemiolgy of PCOS. Affect 5-10%of all reproductive age group women. 50% women attending infertility cilinics. 50% women with recurrent miscarriages. PCO – LEADING CAUSE OF INFERTILITY.
PCO – THE SIGN Partial suppressed FSH New Follicular growth Follicular atresia Repeated follicular atresia & anovulation Thickened stroma PCO Hyperplastic theca cells Luteinized due to LH PCO : Sign, not a disease.
PCOS- DIAGNOSIS MAJOR Chronic anovulation Hyperandrogenemia Clinical signs of Hyperandrogenemia. MINOR Insulin resistance Perimenarchal onset of hisuitism and obesity Elevated LH and FSH ratio Intermittent anovulation assoc with Hyperandrogenemia
IUI : Stimulation protocols Natural cycle Stimulated cycle CC CC+HMG CC+HMG/FSH+hCG FSH/HMG+hCG GnRHa + FSH/HMG + hCG Follicle monitoring Timing of IUI Success rate is high if more then one egg is produced.
Clomiphene Citrate Occupies the Estrogen receptor Concentration of Estrogen receptor is reduced No Negative feedback HPO axis is blind to Estrogen GnRH secretion activated FSH & LH pulse frequency increased Maturation of follicles
Results with Clomiphene Citrate 70% Ovulation rate 40% Pregnancy rate 5% have multiple pregnancy 60% conceive during first three cycles. If there is no pregnancy in 6 cycles, alternative therapy to be chosen.
IUI with Gonadotropin treatment Gonadotropins : contain naturally occurring pituitary hormones (FSH & LH) Daily injections: creates higher than normal levels of FSH, simulating the ovaries to produce multiple follicles and multiple eggs. Transvaginal sonography: to check the growing follicles. Subcutaneous self injection into the thigh or abdomen.
Gonadotropins : Indications Indications: -Failure to respond to antiestrogen therapy At least 3 cycles of C.C. and no ovulation Dose: 0-200mg/day for 7 days. At least 6 Ovulatory cycles and not conceived. -Side effects to antiestrogen therapy irrespective of ovulation -Two or more miscarriage after C. therapy.
Step Up protocols Ovulation in PCO pts remains a challenge OHSS, multiple pregnancy & LUF’s are a problem. Allows right amount of FSH to connect the hormonal imbalance within the PCOS ovary. Fewer follicles per cycle Safer successful ovulation induction OHSS reduced.
Step Down Protocols Principle Principle : Activating pre-Ovulatory follicles and limiting the number of growing follicles by hormonal therapy. Advantages Advantages: Reduced risk of OHSS & multiple pregnancy. Disadvantages Disadvantages: Needs tight monitoring. Increased cancellation cycles.
Metformin in PCO patients In cases diagnosed to have insulin resistance. 1500mg/day till pregnancy achieved. Given for at least 2 mths prior to ovulation induction programme.
INTRAUTERINE INSEMINATION (IUI)
What is IUI? Direct placement of processed highly motile, concentrated sperm, washed free of seminal plasma and other debris, into the uterus as close to the ovulated oocytes as possible. Reduces distance of travel Artificial insemination.
IUI The Goal is to place as many active, well-formed sperms as close to the ovulated eggs as possible, thereby increasing their chances of meeting.
Indications for IUI Female factor: Anatomic defects Cervical factors Ovulatory dysfunction Unexplained infertility Minimal endometriosis Antisperm antibodies in cervix Psychological & Psychogenic sexual dysfunction Male Factor: Anatomic defects of the penis Sexual or ejaculatory dysfunction Retrograde ejaculation Impotency Immunological increased viscosity Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia Azoospermia
Steps involved in COH & IUI Monitoring of a natural or stimulated cycle: so that the time of ovulation is apparent Preparation of Sperm wash: From either male partner or donor Procedure of Insemination: Sperm sample is then inserted into woman’s uterus via a catheter through the cervix.
ICSI Procedure ICSI involves injection of single sperm into the egg
Success Rates If 4 good quality embryos are produced following ICSI and the age of the woman is < 37 years, the pregnancy rates are 45% The hallmark to success is good quality embryos
Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) The advent of ICSI has revolutionised male factor fertility. Revolutionary treatment for patients with severe male factor infertility Fertilisation rate of mature eggs injected with immobilised sperm reached levels comparable to those obtained in conventional IVF Also used to treat couples experiencing failure or low fertilisation rates under conventional IVF conditions
Phases of IVF Cycle One cycle is spread over a period of days. Pituitary suppression (Down regulation) Done with Day 21 Lupride inj followed by stimulation with HMG or r-FSH. Ovarian stimulation Fixed regimen - Step up and Step Down Egg retrieval hours after ovarian trigger
Phases of IVF Cycle One cycle is spread over a period of days. Fertilisation by ICSI Embryo transfer Luteal phase and pregnancy
Donor Programme Donor sperms : - – azoospermia Donor oocyte : - – Premature ovarian failure – Advanced maternal age with poor ovarian reserve Donor embryo : - – Severe male as well as female factor.
78bp 250bp 100bp 50bp bp 50bp 861bp 242bp 285bp Preimplantation genetic Diagnosis (PGD) The Micromanipulator Cleavage stage Embryo Biopsy Polar Body Biopsy FISH -Trisomy 18, X, Y FISH - Polyploidy PCR - Cystic Fibrosis F 508 Mutation PCR - Thalassemia PGD - Earliest form of prenatal diagnosis.
Cryopreservation For future fertilisation attempts
Laparoscopy Looking inside the abdominal cavity
Hysteroscopy Looking inside the uterus
Myths about infertility Timing of intercourse Frequency of intercourse Certain coital positions improve chances of conception Orgasm, libido, stress & tension IUI improves chances of conception Drugs to improve sperm count Cold baths, loose pants Unexplained infertility
Assisted Reproduction mimics human reproduction Getting close to nature
“The greatest motivational act one person can do for another is to listen.” Roy Moody