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International Economics International Economics Tenth Edition Economies of Scale, Imperfect Competition, and International Trade Dominick Salvatore John.

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Presentation on theme: "International Economics International Economics Tenth Edition Economies of Scale, Imperfect Competition, and International Trade Dominick Salvatore John."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Economics International Economics Tenth Edition Economies of Scale, Imperfect Competition, and International Trade Dominick Salvatore John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CHAPTER S I X 6

2 In this chapter: Introduction The Heckscher-Ohlin Model and New Trade Theories Economies of Scale and International Trade Imperfect Competition and International Trade Trade Based on Dynamic Technological Differences Costs of Transportation, Environmental Standards, and International Trade Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3 6.1 Introduction Two difficulties with the H-O theory: (1) Some questions remain regarding the empirical validity of the theory. (2) This implies that a great deal of today's international trade still left unexplained. This chapter fills this gap with some new trade theories, which base international trade on economies of scale, imperfect competition, and differences in the development and spread of new technologies over time among nations.

4 Introduction Heckscher-Ohlin theory based comparative advantage on differences in factor endowments among nations. Leaves significant portion of international trade unexplained. Need complementary trade theories to fill in the gaps. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

5 The Heckscher-Ohlin Model and New Trade Theories Relaxing most assumptions of H-O theory modifies but does not invalidate the theory. However, relaxing assumptions of perfect competition and constant economies of scale require complementary theories to explain trade. Additional trade model required to explain trade based on differences in technological changes over time. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

6 Economies of Scale and International Trade Increasing returns to scale Production situation where output grows proportionately more than the increase in inputs (doubling inputs more than doubles output). With increasing returns to scale, mutually beneficial trade can occur even if nations are identical in every way. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

7 6.3 Economies of Scale and International (1) There are two nations (N1, N2) two commodities (X, Y) (2) Both nations use the same technology in production. (3) Both nations have the same amount of resources. (4) Neither commodity is labor intensive or capital intensive. (5) Both commodities are produced under increasing returns to scale in both nations. - i.e., Output grows proportionately more than the increase in inputs of production. (eg., If all inputs are doubled, output is more than doubled: Economies of scale.) (6) Tastes are equal in both nations. 6.3A. Assumptions

8 FIGURE 6-1 Trade Based on Economies of Scale. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

9 6.3 Economies of Scale and International 6.3B. Explanation Some aspects of the analysis: (0) With trade, each nation becomes completely specialized in the production of one commodity. (1) Which of the two commodities each nation becomes specialized may result from historical accident. (2) In real world, the nations need not be identical in every respect. (3) Eventually, one or a few firms in the nation will capture the entire market for a given product, leading to monopoly or oligopoly. (4) The nations may trade similar products in the same industry (i.e., intra-industry trade)

10 6.3 Economies of Scale and International 6.3C. Related Sources of International Trade (1) International economies of scale (Case Study 6-1) - Products manufactured by international corporations have parts and components made in many different nations. - During the past decade or so, there has been a sharp increase in international trade in parts and components, as well as in setting up of production facilities abroad, and these have been the source of new and significant international economies of scale. - E.g., The New International Economies of Scale (Case Study 6-1)

11 Economies of Scale and International Trade Increasing returns to scale Significant international economies of scale from: Outsourcing – purchase by firm of parts and components abroad in order to keep costs down. Offshoring – firm producing in its own plants abroad some of the parts and components used in its products. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12 6.4 Imperfect Competition and International Trade 6.4A. Trade Based on Production Differentiation (1) Product differentiation and monopolistic competition - Differentiated products: "Neither identical products, nor different products". E.g., Cars, TV sets, etc. - Cf: Standardized (homogeneous) products: "Identical products."E.g., Most of the agricultural products and labor intensive products. - Monopolistic competition: The market organization where there are many firms selling a differentiated product and entry into or exit from the industry is easy.

13 6.4 Imperfect Competition and International Trade 6.4A. Trade Based on Production Differentiation - Cf: Perfect competition vs. Monopoly - Thus differentiated products are usually produced under monopolistic competition. (2) Product differentiation and intra-industry trade - Intra-industry trade: a phenomenon of international exchanging of differentiated products of the same industry. (As a result of economies of scale, product differentiation under monopolistic competition.) - Inter-industry trade: a phenomenon of exchanging completely different products. (H-O model)

14 Imperfect Competition and International Trade International trade can involve the exchange of differentiated products of the same industry or broad product group. Leads to intra-industry trade in differentiated products, as opposed to inter- industry trade in completely different products. Allows economies of scale in production. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

15 Imperfect Competition and International Trade Contrasts to H-O Model 1. Trade in H-O model based on factor endowment differentials, but intra-industry trade is based on product differentiation and economies of scale, and will likely be larger for nations of similar size and factor proportions. 2. With differentiated products produced under economies of scale, pretrade-relative commodity prices may not accurately predict patterns of trade as they do under H-O model. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

16 Imperfect Competition and International Trade Contrasts to H-O Model 3. H-O model predicts trade will lower returns of nation’s scarce factor. With intra-industry trade based on economies of scale, it is possible for all factors to gain. 4. Intra-industry trade is related to sharp increases in international trade in parts and components of a product, or outsourcing. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17 Imperfect Competition and International Trade Comparative advantage seems to determine patterns of inter-industry trade. More likely with dissimilar factor endowments. Economies of scale in differentiated products gives rise to intra-industry trade. More likely with similar factor endowments. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

18 Imperfect Competition and International Trade Intra-industry Trade Index (T): Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. T = 1 - |X - M| X + M  X = exports  M = imports  Numerator is absolute value  T ranges from 0 to 1  T=0 when nation only imports or exports the good  T=1 when exports = imports.

19 6.4 Imperfect Competition and International Trade Key characteristics of Intra-industry trade: (1) While inter-industry trade (eg., trade in the H-O model) is based on comparative advantage among nations, intra-industry trade is based on product differentiation and economies of scale. (2) With intra-industry trade, pretrade-relative commodity prices may no longer accurately predict the pattern of trade. (3) While the H-O model predicts that trade will lower the return of the nation's scarce factor, with intra- industry trade it is possible for all factors to gain.

20 6.4 Imperfect Competition and International Trade Key characteristics of Intra-industry trade: (4) Intra-industry trade is related to the sharp increase in international trade in parts and components of a product. (5) Intra-industry trade arises more between nations with similar tastes and income levels. (6) While most of the trade between developed and developing countries is inter-industry trade, an increasing proportion of the trade among industrial countries is intra-industry trade.

21 6.4 Imperfect Competition and International Trade 6.4B. Measuring Intra-Industry Trade Intra-industry trade index (Grubel-Lloyd index): T = 1 - | X M | / (X + M) If T = 1, perfect intra-industry trade. If T = 0, perfect inter-industry trade. Case Study 6-2. U.S. Intra-Industry in Automotive Products Case Study 6-3 Variety Gains with International Trade 6.4C. Formal Model of Intra-Industry Trade (Skip) 6.4D. Another Version of the Intra-Industry Trade Model (Skip)

22 FIGURE 6-2 Production and Pricing Under Monopolistic Competition. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

23 FIGURE 6-3 Monopolistic Competition and Intra-Industry Trade. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

24 Trade Based on Dynamic Technological Differences Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Product Cycle Model (Vernon, 1966) Advanced industrialized countries develop and introduce new products, with temporary monopoly power as the sole exporter of the product. As the technology producing the product becomes more widespread, production will spread to other nations. This moves international trade to a standard comparative advantage framework

25 Trade Based on Dynamic Technological Differences Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Product Cycle Model (Vernon, 1966) As production becomes standardized, the original introducer of the product loses its technologically based comparative advantage in the production of the product and becomes an importer of the product.

26 FIGURE 6-4 The Product Cycle Model. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

27 Costs of Transportation, Environmental Standards and International Trade Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Transportation costs Transport, or logistics, costs are the freight charges, warehousing costs, costs of loading and unloading, insurance premiums, and interest charges incurred while goods are in transit between nations. Homogeneous goods will be trade internationally only if the pretrade price difference exceeds transport costs.

28 Costs of Transportation, Environmental Standards and International Trade Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Transportation costs Nontraded goods and services are goods for which transport costs exceed price differences across nations. Examples: Cement is not traded internationally because of its high weight-to-value ratio. Average people do not travel from New York to London for a haircut.

29 Costs of Transportation, Environmental Standards and International Trade Two ways to analyze transport costs General equilibrium analysis Uses production frontiers or offer curves, and expresses transport costs in terms of relative commodity prices. Partial equilibrium analysis Analyze absolute cost by holding constant exchange rates, income, and all else in the two nations except amount of good produced, consumed and traded. More straightforward method than general equilibrium analysis. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

30 FIGURE 6-5 Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Transport Costs. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

31 Costs of Transportation, Environmental Standards and International Trade Transport costs influence location of production and industry: Resource-oriented industries locate near the source of raw materials used by the industry. Market-oriented industries produce goods that become heavier or more difficult to transport during production, so they locate near the markets for their products. Footloose industries face neither substantial weight gains nor losses during production, and can locate where availability of other inputs leads to lower manufacturing costs. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

32 Costs of Transportation, Environmental Standards and International Trade Environmental standards Refers to levels of air, water and thermal pollution resulting from garbage disposal that a nation allows. A nation with lower environmental standards can use the environment as a resource endowment, achieving comparative advantage in polluting goods and services. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

33 Appendix to Chapter 6 External Economies and Specialization The Learning Curve and Specialization Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

34 FIGURE 6-6 External Economies and Specialization. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

35 FIGURE 6-7 The Learning Curve and Specialization. Salvatore: International Economics, 10th Edition © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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