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Drowning: an Update 2012 Gary Williams Mini PAC Conference, Melbourne 16-17 November 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "Drowning: an Update 2012 Gary Williams Mini PAC Conference, Melbourne 16-17 November 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drowning: an Update 2012 Gary Williams Mini PAC Conference, Melbourne November 2012

2 Plan Definitions Guidelines Epidemiology Pathophysiology Management Outcome prediction

3 Definition 2002, World Congress on Drowning, Amsterdam: “respiratory embarrassment from submersion / immersion in a liquid medium” “near drowning” “dry or wet drowning” “secondary drowning” “delayed onset respiratory distress”

4 Drowning: Aust Resus Council Victim rolled to side during initial checking, airway clearance and initial breathing check Begin EAR in water if immediate exit not possible If hypothermic, attempt resuscitation even after possibly prolonged immersion Last updated Feb 2005

5 Drowning: ERC 2010 Update More research comparing OHCA due to drowning with primary cardiac OHCA needed In-water EAR if victim unresponsive, breaths in 1 minute then decide based on est time to shore < 5 mins continue EAR while towing > 5 mins give 1 more minute EAR then head off uninterrupted Early intubation with cuffed ETT, not LMA or Guedel Use ECG, ET CO2 or echo to confirm arrest. Be wary to discontinue resus efforts in the field Core temp 30C Recommends rewarming hypothermic patient to 32-34C and avoid temps >37C during subsequent intensive care course

6 Drowning: AHA / ILCOR 2010 Mouth to nose EAR by swimmer while retrieving When ALS commenced traditional A-B-C sequence used In hypothermic patient value of deferring subsequent defib attempts or resuscitation drugs “controversial” and “reasonable to consider…. according to standard algorithm…concurrent with rewarming strategies” Use ETCO2 to monitor effectiveness, ROSC and avoid hyperventilation 32-34C “may be considered” for children who remain comatose after ROSC Avoid rewarming faster than 0.5C per 2 hours and treat fever (>38C) aggressively with antipyretics and cooling devices

7 < >700 Age-standardised Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) rates from Drownings by country (per 100,000 inhabitants)

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10 National Drowning Report, RLSA, 2011

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14 ANZPIC Registry

15 PICU Admissions, Drowning, ANZPIC Registry

16 PICU Admissions, Drowning by Age Category ANZPIC Registry

17 National Drowning Report, RLSA, 2011

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20 PICU Admissions Deaths Drowning, ANZPIC Registry

21 Predictors of Death or Severe Neur Impairment After Submersion At site of submersion Immersion duration > 10’ Delay in commencement of CPR In the ED Asystole on arrival or CPR duration > 25’ Fixed and dilated pupils and GCS < 5 Fixed and dilated pupils and arterial pH < 7 In the ICU No spontaneous purposeful movements and abnormal brainstem function 24h after immersion Abnormal CT scan within 36h of submersion Oh’s Intensive Care Manual, 6 th Ed 2009

22 PICU LOS Drowning ANZPIC Registry

23 Drowning Pathophysiology: Pulmonary Aspirate small amounts, usu,22ml/kg  Fluid shifts  Aspiration of debris  Infection (rare)  Surfactant depletion Pulmonary oedema, pneumonia (25-50%), ARDS < 10% ←Neurogenic ←Altered capillary permeability ←Forced inspiration against a closed glottis ←Surfactant dysfunction

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25 Pathophysiology: Cardiac Potential role of “molecular autopsy” in unexplained drownings ?cardiac channelopathy Mayo Clinic 2011: 35 unexplained drownings, average age 17y, 23 male 12 female  putative pathogenic mutation in 1/3: 3 LQT S, 6 CPVT More common in females with 5/8 unexplained “swimming-related” drownings in females having mutation < 10% of drownings, implications for family In retrospect 50% had warning sign on history

26 Presentation and outcome of water-related events in children with LQT syndrome Albertella et al, ADC, Aug 2011

27 OHCA Drowning V Primary Cardiac Claesson et al, Resuscitation, 2008

28 OHCA Drowning Vs Primary Cardiac Grmec et al, Int J Emerg Med 2009

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30 Could water temperature be protective? Animal data that brain cooling before HI event ↓ neuronal injury  Diving Reflex: ↓HR, ↑SVR, ↓Q skin ↓Q muscle ↓Q gut ↓Q kidney ↓Q myocardial with CBF preserved maybe even ↑ by evolving hypercarbia Colder the water  more profound is reflex No evidence stronger in the young  Immersion-induced apnoea: prevents heat exchange through the lungs before hypoxia intervenes

31 Could water temperature be protective? Q: How cool has deep brain got to be and how quickly while hypoxia is developing? A: Unknown Animal data (rat) suggests 33C in <5’, probably 30C in <10’ Mathematical model of human hippocampus temp on exposure to water at 2C

32 A proposed decision making rule for search, rescue and resuscitation of submersion victims Tipton and Golden, Resuscitation, 2011 Submersions > 4 min, age, water temp, deep body temp, duration of submersion and good neurologic outcome  43 cases, all with water temp documented  Submersion time in 40/43  37/43 initial deep body temp available: < 30C in30/37 (80%)

33 A proposed decision making rule for search, rescue and resuscitation of submersion victims Tipton and Golden, Resuscitation, 2011

34 Submersion Duration & Risk of Death or Severe Neur Impairment Quan et al, Peds, Oct 1990

35 Christensen et al, Peds, May 1997

36 Impact of age, submersion time and water temp on outcome in near drowning Suominen et al, Resuscitation 2002 Finland regional survey – most drownings occur in cold water 61 admissions to ICU Helsinki over 12 y: water temp, rectal temp, and estimated submersion time Median water temp 17C (range 0-33)…lower in survivors but much cross over 80% admission temp < 35C (no diff S & NS) Est submersion time only independent predictor of survival (5’ V 16’) but no clear cut off could be defined

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40 Seasonal River Temperatures around Sydney

41 ED Prediction of outcome ? Even fixed and dilated pupils, low GCS, need for CPR in ED have proven unreliable in individual cases Christensen et al (Peds, 1997): composite score based on ED physical exam (apnoea, coma) + need for CPR + lowest pH …..best available ……but even this 93% accurate in their hands

42 ED Prediction of outcome ?

43 ICU Prediction of Outcome ? PE: GCS ≥ 6 or purposeful movement + intact brainstem reflexes  v likely good outcome SEPS: absent SEPS 100% predictive of poor outcome Imaging:  Early (8h) abnormal CT strongly predictive for bad outcome; normal CT uninformative  MRI more specific but need 3-4 days to avoid inappropriate optimism

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45 Cranial CT Findings in a large group of children with drowning; diagnostic, prognostic and forensic implications Rafaat et al, PCCM 2008 CT scans of 156 children admitted to ICU with drowning  Abnormalities mostly diffuse ↓ GWD or LDC BG  Early (8h) abnormal scan = bad outcome (28/28 died)  Early normal and later abnormal scan the same outcome (23/24) All abnormal scans in children with GCS 3 or 4 post resuscitation: if GCS higher no need to scan Normal scan uninformative

46 Drowning: PICU Management Ventilation: normocapnia, optimise oxygenation, minimise VILI Circulation: fluids, inotropes, monitoring to optimise haemodynamics, perfusion Prophylactic anticonvulsants? No evidence Continuous EEG monitoring of unconscious pt Glucocorticoids? No evidence (Foex, ADC, 2002) ?↑infection, ?? role later if ARDS Prophylactic antibiotics? No evidence (Wood, ADC, 2010) even with CXR changes…selects resistant bugs Therapeutic Hypotherrmia “Cooling” ?

47 Moler et al, CCM, 2011

48 THAPCA Paed OHCA 32-34C for 48h then C for 3d C for 5d Within 6h of ROSC * Drowning victims with core temp <32C on arrival specifically excluded

49 Reasons to be “circumspect” 1.Fever common, bad for injured brain, often not controlled to normothermia in control arms 2.TH does have risks 3.Two large retrospective studies in paed cardiac arrest (Pittsburgh n=181, CCTG n=222) have not shown benefit 4.Data on early prophylactic use of TH in TBI in children suggesting a worse outcome

50 Hutchinson et al, NEJM, June 2008

51 Summary Drowning remains a major cause death and disability Accurate outcome prediction in field and ED problematic Cold water protection theoretically feasible but little evidence to support Therapeutic hypothermia still waiting for good evidence to support

52 Questions ?

53 “Drowning” by Ken Done

54 Drowning Pathophysiology: Pulmonary Aspirate small amounts, usu,22ml/kg  Fluid shifts  Aspiration of debris  Infection (rare)  Surfactant depletion Pulmonary oedema, pneumonia (25-50%), ARDS < 10% ←Neurogenic ←Altered capillary permeability ←Forced inspiration against a closed glottis ←Surfactant dysfunction

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56 Pathophysiology: Cardiac Potential role of “molecular autopsy” in unexplained drownings ?cardiac channelopathy Mayo Clinic 2011: 35 unexplained drownings, average age 17y, 23 male 12 female  putative pathogenic mutation in 1/3: 3 LQT S, 6 CPVT More common in females with 5/8 unexplained “swimming-related” drownings in females having mutation < 10% of drownings, implications for family In retrospect 50% had warning sign on history

57 Presentation and outcome of water-related events in children with LQT syndrome Albertella et al, ADC, Aug 2011

58 OHCA Drowning V Primary Cardiac Claesson et al, Resuscitation, 2008

59 OHCA Drowning Vs Primary Cardiac Grmec et al, Int J Emerg Med 2009


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