Presentation on theme: "1 Unexplained Mysteries. 2 Leap of Faith §Spontaneous generation - that life arose from non-living things, intelligence from non-intelligence ? Is it."— Presentation transcript:
2 Leap of Faith §Spontaneous generation - that life arose from non-living things, intelligence from non-intelligence ? Is it reasonable to ask that one believes this can happen, and to take it as a scientific fact, without scientific proof? §Spontaneous generation occurred only once in the history of the universe ? Why only once in all these billions of years?
3 Leap of Faith §Natural selection ensures survival of a species - God’s law for preservation ? But never has natural selection been observed where one species evolved into another. Why? §The link between man and apes still missing ? Why still missing after all these years? Looks like it never existed in the first place? è Requires more faith than believing in the Creation account!
5 Appreciating Orders of Probability #Probability for CoinsProbability for Dice 38216 1010 3 6 x 10 7 2010 6 4 x 10 15 10010 30 7 x 10 77 Order of Probability# of Coins# of Dice 10 50 16765 10 110 366142 10 260 865335
6 Appreciation of Large Numbers §Distance across the universe in centimetres: 10 26 §Weight of the universe in tons: 10 49 §Number of grains of dust in the Milky Way: 10 53 §Number of protons, neutrons and electrons in the whole universe: 10 80 Yet, above numbers are small when compared with probabilities in evolution!
7 The Lower Limits Borel’s Basic Law of Chance, Corollary 3: “Any cosmic event whose probability of occurrence is less than 1 chance in 10 50 can never happen, regardless of the time allowed for the event to take place or the number of opportunities for the event to take place.” (Emile Borel, “Probabilities and Life”, 1962) Hence, lower limit of probability for events to be possible is 1 in 10 50
8 The Lower Limits Astrophysics Particle-Event Law Maximum number of microscopic particles within the universe is 10 80 Universe is no older than 30 billion years old Hence, maximum total of trials that could possibly occur in the history of the universe is 10 110 Any event whose probability of occurrence is less than 1 chance in 10 110 cannot occur in the universe. (Henry Morris, Impact No. 73, 1979)
9 Chance of Spontaneous Generation §Probability of a single living cell arising spontaneously (abiogenesis) calculated over and over again by scientists §Unable to come up with a probability which falls above Borel's limit! §Sir Fred Hoyle, astronomer and physicist, calculated this to be 1 in 10 40,000, far smaller than the lower limits of probable events §Recent computation puts this at 1 in 10 1,000 - still significantly below Borel’s limit
10 Chance of Spontaneous Generation Hence, the supposed spontaneous origin of life is an impossibility! Probability considerations played a large role in changing Hoyle’s belief from a purely evolutionary origin of life to believing in a Creator. (Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe, “Evolution from Space”, 1981)
11 Probability of Protein Synthesis §Computed by Francis Crick, a non-creationist who shared the Nobel Prize in 1962 with James Watson and Maurice Wilkins for their discovery of the molecular structure of the DNA (“Life Itself, its origin and nature”, 1981) §Consider a protein with 200 amino acids (less than what the average protein has) l Molecular construction of a cell require amino acids to be strung in correct order l Normally a complicated biochemical process, using instructions from the RNA - not a random process!
12 Probability of Protein Synthesis §Probability that the correct order of amino acids is formed is 1 in 10 260 - again below the Borel limit l Estimated number of fundamental particles in the entire Universe is only 10 80 ! §Probability would be much worse for longer proteins §Consider for the many possible proteins - can a particular amino acid sequence be selected by chance? Impossible
14 §Ernst Heinrich Haeckel’s theory (1834-1919) l A German biologist and philosopher l Dubbed “the apostle of Darwinism in Germany” l Self-taught knowledge in embryology §Claimed that successive stages of individual embryonic development repeat the evolutionary stages of one’s animal ancestry l Claimed human embryo shows that man descended from the fish, the reptile, and the monkey Embryonic Recapitulation
15 Vestiges of Human Ancestors Human Ancestry “Yolk Sac” “Tail” “Gill Slits”
16 Now a Defunct Theory §“It is now firmly established that ontogeny does not repeat phylogeny” (George Gaylord Simpson, famed Harvard evolutionist, An Introduction to Biology, 1957) §None are vestigial; all have functional purposes l “Yolk-sac” – blood forming sac supplying first blood before formation of bone marrow l “Gill slits” – throat pouches that develop into lower jaw, tongue, thymus gland, middle ear, etc l “Tail (coccyx)” – muscle attachment for upright posture
17 Vestiges of Defunct Theory §Darwin said that embryological evidence was “second to none in importance” §Once termed “the fundamental biogenetic law” §Hence, still quite frequently used and quoted as “proof” of the accuracy of the theory of evolution in modern writings (eg Isaac Asimov, The Genesis War, 1981) §But, not only rejected by evolutionists, also turned out this was......
18.... nothing but a bad hoax §Haeckel had passion for promoting the recapitulation theory §Faked some of his evidence l Altered his illustrations of embryos l Printed the same plate of an embryo three times, and labeled one a human, the second a dog and the third a rabbit “to show their similarity” l Went so far as to alter pictures of embryos drawn by others
19 A Bad Hoax §Exposed by professor L. Rutimeyer of Basle University. §Charged with fraud by five professors, and ultimately convicted in a university court §During trial, Haeckel admitted that he had altered his drawings, but interesting what he said in his own defence:
20 A Bad Hoax “I should feel utterly condemned and annihilated by the admission, were it not that hundreds of the best observers and biologists lie under the same charge. The great majority of all morphological, anatomical, histological, and embryological diagrams are not true to nature, but are more or less doctored, schematized and reconstructed.”
21 Common Sense Test The “image of God” contains several features of awesome beauty and highly sophisticated and ingenious design. §Can a thing of beauty result from disorder? §Can these evolve – naturally – from the lower life forms? §Can these just happen? Above violates not just the common sense test but against scientific observations in nature – 2 nd law of thermodynamics
22 DNA §Huge amount of information contained in human DNA l Instructions for building the material of life l DNA in genes from one human cell contains a billion bio-chemical steps l If all DNA in a human were placed end-to-end it would reach the sun and back 400 times §Highly complex - molecules can unite in 10 2,400,000,000 ways §Ingenious algorithm to compress all that information
23 The Human Genome Human Genome Project §15 year international project since 1990 to map the “letters” (molecular structure) of the human genetic code in the DNA in the 23 pairs of human chromosomes l Race between US government led project and privately funded project §Important applications in the field of genetics and medicine l But also possible abuses
24 The Human Genome §3.4 billion “letters” in ~80,000 genes in the human genome to be decoded l Identifying all the letters in the genome very near completion (Time, April 17, 2000) §Only Chromosome 22 has been fully decoded by Dec 99 – first to be deciphered because of its small size §Expect another 50 years before can fully de- code all the chromosomes of the genome
25 Chromosome 22 §Close to 700 genes with 200-300 additional ones likely to be identified §Gene size vary from 1,000 to 583,000 bases of DNA – average 190,000 §34 million letters in the DNA sequence in this! §Yet 11 gaps could not be deciphered because of limitations in current technology! §A number of unexpected findings including even more complexity with repeat sequences of DNA
26 Im-Probability of Evolution §Laws of mathematical probability rule out that the DNA, or the gene, or the human chromosome, or the human genome can possibly evolve randomly §Neither can such complex ingenious design simply “happen”
27 Cells §Human body has 100 trillion cells l All the cells in the human body lined up side-by-side would encircle the earth 200 times. §Each cell contains enough information to fill 10 million volumes. §Probability of a single bacteria evolving calculated by Yale physicist Harold Morowitz to be 1 in 10 100,000,000,000 ! Yet another impossibility! Let alone the different types of sophisticated human cells.
28 The Eye §The human eye can handle 1.5 million simultaneous messages. §In a day, the eye moves 100,000 times l The body would have to walk 50 miles to exercise the leg muscles at an equal amount. §137 million nerve endings pick up every message the eye sends to the brain.
29 The Eye “To suppose that the eye with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, could have been formed by natural selection, seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest sense.” (Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species)
30 The Heart §The human heart beats about 40 million times a year §In a lifetime, the heart will pump 600,000 metric tons of blood §All veins, arteries and capillaries lined end- to-end would travel 80,000 miles. §The entire circulatory system can be serviced in 20 seconds
31 The Brain §The brain has 10 billion circuits, each one being 5-10 times more complex than any computer ever built §Has a memory of 10 21 bits with information capacity of nearly 20 million books l A machine matching the human brain in memory capacity would consume enough electrical energy at the rate of 1 billion watts – it would cost $10 billion and fill the Empire State Building. §Science cannot explain consciousness in the brain
32 Probability of Man’s Evolution §Probability for the evolution of man calculated by Carl Sagan to be 1 in 10 2,000,000,000 §Mathematics clearly stand against the “fact” of spontaneous generation and the evolution of higher life forms So why does atheism still persist?
33 An im-Probability “The more statistically improbable a thing is, the less we can believe that it just happened by blind chance. Superficially, the obvious alternative to chance is an intelligent Designer.” (Richard Dawkins, Professor of Zoology, Oxford University, atheist) That paradigm issue, again
35 The Bombardier Beetle §Drives away enemies by squirting very hot (higher than 100 o C) liquid with very bad smell l Body contains hydrogen peroxide dissolved in water, and hydroquinine l Adds inhibitor to prevent reaction inside body l When faced by its enemy, chemicals are mixed in a combustion chamber l Adds catalysts to start reaction and produce quinine - bad smell - and heat l Then it opens its valve and squirts at the enemy
36 The Bombardier Beetle §How in the evolution path did the B/Beetle know what chemical is needed as the inhibitor and what as the catalyst? Cannot be by trial and error §Cannot be explained by Darwinism §Many other species that have unique capabilities - all cannot be accounted for by Darwinism ?
37 The Archer Fish §Feeds on bugs by aiming and spitting at them from under the water §Able to spit with great accuracy §Problem: from under the water, light is refracted (bent) §How did this fish evolve its senses to be so skillful to compensate for the refraction? - No room for trial and error to evolve!
38 Other Unique Creatures §The giraffe l Long neck presents special difficulties for heart to keep right blood pressure to the brain -especially when the giraffe lowers its neck §The bat l How did this blind creature come to possess its highly accurate sonic radar? §Others l The kangaroo’s reproductive system l Migratory patterns of birds and other animals l Cooling system of the gazelle
39 Symbiosis §Greek word meaning “life together” §“Any mutually beneficial association between two or more dissimilar organisms” §Example: The sea anemone protects the clown fish which is protected from its sting. The clown fish attracts predators to the anemone which stings them and feeds on them.
40 Symbiosis More Examples §The mimosa girdler (a beetle) and the mimosa tree l The insect prunes the tree branches and allows it to scatter its eggs while the pruning enables the tree to live to 40-50 years §The Large Blue Butterfly and the Red Ants l The ants feed the caterpillar with their larvae while milking it of a sweet fluid - without the larvae the caterpillar remains a caterpillar!
41 Symbiosis §Even more examples: l The honeypod ants and aphids l Figs and wasps l Devilfish and Portuguese man-of-war l Leave bug ad bacteria l Cleaning symbioses to keep free of parasites and fungi §Darwinism would have required both species to evolve in tandem. But if evolution in random, how can this happen?
43 The Atheist Response Darwinism defies logic and reason §Yet, in spite of recent findings invalidating Darwinism, the atheist paradigm continues to be stubbornly held §One possible rationalisation may be the “Barrow & Tipler” type of response: l “So what? That’s just how things happen to be. No need for surprises. No need to explain.” l That’s how the river flows
44 The Atheist Blind Spot But we need to be amazed: §Cannot explain the origin or the mechanics l Life from non-life, intelligence from non- intelligence l As with some creatures, cannot explain the sequence by which they acquired their unique characteristics (eg the bombardier beetle)
45 The Atheist’s Blind Spot §Cannot explain order and design l Randomness cannot produce any order on any appreciable scale l Design never arises out of chaos l Not simple designs but highly complex and ingenious design – look at the Human Genome l Cannot explain the huge gap between man and the next most intelligent creature
46 The Atheist’s Blind Spot §Mechanism can never explain beauty l “Why are there flowers?”, Immanuel Kant, 18th century German philosopher Above are intuitive and yet consistent with observations in nature – and verified by recent scientific discoveries To deny them is to choose the atheist paradigm by blind faith