Presentation on theme: "Top tips for GPs- Psychiatry from two perspectives"— Presentation transcript:
1Top tips for GPs- Psychiatry from two perspectives Dr Janet Obeney-WilliamsStaff Grade Liaison PsychiatryFormer GP principle in General Practice
2What is general practice like? 'It is a world where thedoctor is frequently in the dark, getting glimpses of his patients from time to time, being careful not to find out too much, being content to find out the right distance for the patient and for himself.’-Dr Andrew Elder
3What is a psychiatrist?‘Psychiatrists are medical doctors who must evaluate patients to determine whether or not their symptoms are the result of a physical illness, a combination of physical and mental, or a strictly psychiatric one.’ -Wikipedia
410,000 hoursPsychologist Dr Nick Bayliss is famous for stating that it takes 10,000 hours to become an EXPERT-5 years of full time work
6Experts GP’s are experts We are experts at evaluating and treating in SHORT consultations over (sometimes) LONG periods of timeWe treat most problems without specialists
7Only 1 in 20 GP consultations results in a referral to specialists-Kings Fund 2010
8No Health Without Mental Health (2011) Mental ill health represents up to 23% of the total burden of ill health in the UK-largest single cause of disability
9No health without mental health –HM Government 2011 Almost half of all adults will experience at least one episode of depression during their lifetime
10At least one in four people will experience a mental health problem at some point in their life and one in six adults has a mental health problem at any one time
11Self-harming in young people is not uncommon (10–13% of 15–16-year-olds have self-harmed) About one in 100 people has a severe mental health problem
12One in ten new mothers experiences postnatal depression
13Healthy Lives, Healthy People (2010) -White Paper First public health strategy that gives equal weight to both mental and physical health:.A preventive approach to mental health
14White Paper 2010 Britain is now the most obese nation in Europe By improving maternal health, we could give our children a better start in life, reduce infant mortality and the numbers of low birth-weight babies.
15White Paper 2010In one study, the children of women who were depressed at 3 months after giving birth had significantly lower IQ scores at 11 yearsTaking better care of our children’s health and development could improve educational attainment and reduce the risks of mental illness, unhealthy lifestyles,
16Health and Social Care Act (2012) “Parity of esteem” between physical and mental healthNHS Mandate 2012 to tackle disparities between physical and mental health care
17TopicsMedically unexplained symptomsSchizophrenia and metabolic syndromeThe ‘new psychoses’
18Medically unexplained symptoms Medically unexplained symptoms are physical symptoms that lack a medically identifiable organic cause.Some studies suggest that one-fifth of initial appointments with GPs concern symptoms of this kind (Burton 2003).
19Medically unexplained symptoms in primary care Adult patients with medically unexplained symptoms (somatisation) in primary care are numerous and make disproportionately high demands on health services. Most of these individuals are open to the suggestion that their illness reflects psychological needs. (Else Guthrie-Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2008)
21ExplanationRejecting The doctor denies the reality of the patients’ symptoms and implies that the problem is imaginary or related to a psychological problem.Colluding The doctor acquiesces to the explanation offered by the patientEmpowering The doctor provides a physical mechanism of causation The doctor removes any sense of blame from the patient The doctor strengthens the relationship with the patient, enabling them to resolve the problem togetherSource: Salmon et al (1999)
22ExplanationRejecting-as GP’s we are experts in knowing this is unlikely to work!Colluding-we know this can undermine our patient’s confidence in our skillsEmpowering-we know this our best option
23Empowering GP’s do this for our patients all the time We explore our patients Health Beliefs-a core competence in our Royal College examinations CSAWe are Generalists so we can turn our hand to most explanations from the increased gastric acid in Dyspepsia or the reduced serotonin in Depression
24Exploring Another core competence for us-Cue’s, We have our own cohort of EXPERTS who’ve helped us become skilled at using our consultations to the best effect-Balint, Pendleton, Neighbour, the Cambridge-Calgarry group and BATHE (relayed to us only this morning)Our Primary Care Inheritance
25PhysicalGP’s are used to explaining physical illness, in all systems of the bodyOur patients often appreciate the detail we give them
26PsychosocialAs GP’s, when we’ve picked up our cues, hidden agenda’s we go on to address this with our patients-we’re probably ExpertsGP’s when surveyed have been shown to believe we should manage MOST MUPSGP’s are still Gatekeepers and, I would argue, EXPERTS
27When to refer?Appropriate and timely investigations-sometimes essential to exclude organic causesWhen attendance is too frequent??When someone develops an alarming symptom-we’ve all had that One Case who defied all the adviceWhen we are stuck
28EvidenceThe children of parents who present with medically unexplained symptoms are at greater risk of developing such symptoms than are the offspring of parents with organic medical conditions (Levy et al, 2001; Craig et al, 2002).IBS-25% more visits
29EvidenceChildren with more aches and pains, tiredness and fatigue are more likely than their peers to develop anxiety and depression (Campo et al, 2004).Social learning theory is thought to be the most likely explanation
30EvidenceA history of childhood adversity is common in patients with medically unexplained symptoms in primary care (Schilte et al, 2001).Depressive symptoms were the major predictor of frequent attendance in primary care populations in the UK and Spain (Dowrick et al, 2000).
31EvidenceA group in the USA conducted an RCT of multidimensional stepped care consisting of cognitive–behavioural, pharmacological and other treatment modalities. During the 12-month trial, which involved 206 patients, 48 in the treatment group improved compared with 34 in the control group (Smith et al, 2006).
32EvidenceConsensus of the evidence seems to be that if your patients will agree-CBT, treatment with anti-depressants (even if lack of a clear diagnosis of depression) can be helpfulRefer for psychological therapies
33Factors associated with poor prognosis Somatic symptoms that have lasted for more than 2 yearsChildhood physical or sexual abuseHistory of psychiatric disorderOngoing severe psychosocial stressors
34PsychiatryPatients who come to a liaison psychiatry clinic have already had ‘all’ their investigationsPatients who’ve had Imaging, EEG’s, Telemetry, after spending time with many EXPERTSWhat can Psychiatry add?
35Some terms for MUPS Psychogenic Psychosomatic Non organic Conversion Unexplained medical symptoms HysteriaSomatoform disorders FunctionalDissociative
36Psychiatry Sometimes management of Risk As a way into more complex psychological therapiesTreatment of difficulty to manage co-morbid mood disordersPatients see us as not being able to arrange investigations
37Non-epileptic seizures Between 1-15% of general neurology patients, up to 50% of patients referred to specialist epilepsy centres.Acute onset might be associated with a specific traumatic life event.Can present in people who also have epilepsy
38Non-epileptic seizures > in women, 75%:25%Usual onset in the 20sHistory of childhood sexual abuse in up to 50%Co-morbid epilepsy 15%Co-morbid personality disorder up to 40% (10% in epilepsy)Co-morbid anxiety and depression high in both groups
39Non-epileptic seizures Patients need neurological assessment with EEG and possible video-telemetryThe nonexistence of epilepsy is best confirmed by the neurologistNon-epileptic seizures can result in overdose of benzodiazepines and patients can end up in ITUCan be easier to obtain negative results than some more non-specific illnesses such as fibromyalgia
40Non-epileptic seizures History and examination give indications of non-epileptic seizureType of seizure – prolonged and frequent in the face of normal inter-ictal intellectual functionSeizures in public places, especially clinics or hospitalsHeightened distress after seizures e.g. prolonged cryingTongue biting, or or incontinence are less useful in distinguishing from epilepsy
41SchizophreniaAnnual incidence in UK is per 100,000 (same statistic as DVT on oral contraceptive in women)Strong evidence emerging for association of schizophrenia with complications during pregnancy and birthIncrease in schizophrenia in late winter and spring births, thought to be associated with influenza virus contact in mid-trimester of pregnancy
42Schizophrenia & IQHutton and Joyce 1998, 2002 studies 136 people with schizophrenia and 81 controls showing cognitive impairment is there at First Episode and it is GeneralisedPre-Morbid IQ tested by National Adult Reading TestPre-Morbid IQ is linearly associated with presentation of SchizophreniaLower the IQ the earlier the first age of presentation
43Relevance?Both Gray and White matter are affected in people with schizophreniaLeeson et al 2009 studied cognition at 1 and 4 years in relation to social outcomeOnly Global IQ :No other specific measure could predict global social function
44Can anything be done? 2005, Richard and Deary Boosting cognitive reserve in adulthoodEducational attainment, community collegeExerciseCardiorespiratory functionModern Imaging has shown us that the adult brain is more plastic than we originally thought, recruiting new neuronal pathways
45What does this add? Encouragement in outcome modification Some rigorous explanations which can be meaningful to patients and their familiesUnder-pins other work such as importance of ante-natal nutritionAll areas where GP’s are involved
46Schizophrenia and CHDAll cause mortality in people with schizophrenia is >twice that in the general populationCHD is a main player here and GP’s are expert at detecting and modifying thisThere is, however, evidence that even when BMI and other variables are controlled for, schizophrenia and insulin resistance are related
47Schizophrenia and CHD GP’s are Experts in lifestyle modification work GP’s are experts at Interventions To modify CHD and addressing the complexity of the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance (psychiatrists are not)
48Schizophrenia and Diabetes Prevalence likely 15-18%Up to 1/3 may have impaired glucose toleranceHigh prevalence pre-dates the anti-psychotic eraGP’s are Experts at explaining risks to patients and working with motivation and concordance
49Schizophrenia and Diabetes The relationship between schizophrenia and diabetes is not fully understood. An association between the two conditions was recognised in the pre-antipsychotic era. Schizophrenia and diabetes may share a common aetiology and/or pathogenic mechanisms.
50Cochrane review 2010Results indicate that regular exercise programmes are possible in this population, and that they can have health benefits on both the physical and mental health and well-being of individuals with schizophrenia.Larger randomised studies are required before any definitive conclusions can be reached
51The ‘new psychoses’Potentially treatable psychoses which have been recognised in the last decadeCan present with evident confusion and neurological symptoms, making diagnosis challengingSome patients present with predominantly psychiatric symptoms and have been diagnosed with schizophrenia
52The ‘new psychoses’ anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis can have additional features of dyskinesias, seizures and catatoniaCan be associated with ovarian pathologydiagnosis requires a positive finding of antibodies to the NMDA receptor
53The ‘new psychoses’There are distinct prodromal, psychotic, unresponsive, hyperkinetic and recovery phasesRecovery is not always to the pre-morbid levelHigh mortality rate (25% in a case study of 100)Diagnosis is made by detecting the antibodies in serum-Oxford
54The ‘new psychoses’Treatment is immunomodulatory agents, including plasmapheresis or high-dose steroidsAnti-psychotics and benzodiazepines have a supportive role in treatmentunclear whether there is a pure psychiatric presentation associated with lower antibody titres.
55NMDAN-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor a glutamate receptor, is the predominant molecular device for controlling synaptic plasticity and memory functionHypo-function of Glutamate is emerging as a likely cause of schizophrenia, alongside the Dopamine hypothesis
56In Summary Potentially treatable psychosis Role of investigations pivotal to diagnosisOngoing research in this area-epidemiological and investigative
57To summariseMental illness is beginning to be recognised as the huge public health concern that we ‘experts’ know only too well that it isSome of the well known causes of poor health-nutrition, Obesity, metabolic syndrome and the range of unformulated symptoms which present in primary care
58To summariseGP’s are managing majority of mental illness without involving specialistsEvidence supports the impact of the holistic care in the areas we’ve looked at