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Leveraging TM Technology to Improve Translatability & Usability Dr Jody Byrne University of Sheffield.

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Presentation on theme: "Leveraging TM Technology to Improve Translatability & Usability Dr Jody Byrne University of Sheffield."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leveraging TM Technology to Improve Translatability & Usability Dr Jody Byrne University of Sheffield

2 Presentation Outline Some Notions About Translation Memories The Real Effects of Translation Memories Usability Translation Memories & Usability Iconic Linkage Case Study Implications

3 Some Notions About TM Criticisms of Translation Memories It makes translations less cohesive “Peep-hole translations” (Heyn 1998) It makes translations less readable Translations are linguistically dull and stilted

4 Some Notions About TM The Truth about Translation Memories Improved consistency Greater throughput Reduced translation costs Greater usability Greater translatability

5 CAT & Usability Usability “A measure of how well certain users can perform particular tasks quickly and effectively in a given context and how satisified they are with the experience” Usability is Based on Human Cognition Short-term and long-term memory Limited cognitive resources: “7±2” Not always predictable or efficient Propensity for Habit Formation Learning, Recognition vs. Recall

6 How Does TM Improve Usability? Facilitates Iconic Linkage The rendering of structurally non-isomorphic but semantically identical segments of text using identical constructions. Some examples Sentence 1: Wechsel in den Programmier-Modus (PROG-Modus). Sentence 2: Wechseln Sie in den PROG-Modus. Translation: Switch the machine into program mode (PROG Mode). Sentences are a 54% match but mean the same thing Sentence 1: Maschine ist im Arbeits-Modus. Sentence 2: Die Maschine befindet sich im Arbeits-Modus. Translation: The machine is now in Work Mode. Sentences are a 67% match but mean the same thing

7 How Does TM Improve Usability? Benefits of Iconic Linkage Aids chunking Facilitates habit formation Reduces amount of problem-solving Improves recall and recognition Aids meaningful learning Improved predictability

8 Implementing Iconic Linkage Problems and Limitations Style guides are often too difficult to memorise TM on its own is not enough CAT tools cannot detect potential Iconic Linkage or introduce new instances into a text  can only detect partial instances

9 Practical Example Aim To test whether Iconic Linkage improves usability of software user guides Method Simulated translation process Rewrote manual using style guide and Translator’s Workbench Conducted usability study (Byrne 2005) Results Clear improvement in satisfaction, effectiveness etc.

10 Sample Style Rules parallel structures in headings, tables lists, sentences and procedures no anthropomorphism short, uncomplicated sentences active voice non-sexist language / bias-free pronouns use present tense consistent terminology and avoid polysemy use gerunds in headings and not infinitive verb forms no Latinisms and foreign words/phrases logical procedural syntax use second person to directly address user no possessive forms of product names use positive constructions where possible

11 Editing & Readability Testing Readability Statistics for Edited User GuideReadability Statistics for Original User Guide

12 Translatability Match TypeOriginal VersionEdited Version Repetitions - Segments 1028 Repetitions - Words 21291 Percentage Repetition 010 The Analyse function revealed the following figures after the editing process…

13 Usability Figures



16 Results Overall Results of Usability Study Less errors Faster times Remembered more information Increased satisfaction

17 Conclusions Implications and Future Applications Using TM technology together with style guides improves usability The combination of TM and style guide doesn’t have to be used as part of the translation process; it could be used as an editing tool The use of Controlled Language could have similar effects and is worthy of investigation Incorporating a style checker we could improve this even further and make it easier

18 Thank you Dr Jody Byrne Modern Languages Teaching Centre School of Modern Languages & Linguistics University of Sheffield Email: Web:

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