Presentation on theme: "New Directions in Energy Research or a Magnetic Quirk?"— Presentation transcript:
New Directions in Energy Research or a Magnetic Quirk?
Superconductors Magnetocaloric Effect Thermoelectric effect Superconductors Magnetocaloric Effect Thermoelectric effect Research Interests http://www.superconductors.org/INdex.htm Waste heat harvesting Low loss power transfer Magnetic refrigeration
Superconductivity Zero Resistance Magnetic Levitation Applications: MRIs CERN Courtesy Dr Gaifullin
Superconductors at CERN 2008: Magnets quenched at the LHC (CERN), putting back discovery of the ‘Higgs boson’ by approximately a year. http://youtu.be/BEnaEMMAO_s http://press.web.cern.ch/press-releases/2008/10/cern-releases-analysis-lhc-incident
Magnetocaloric Effect (Solid State Magnetic Refrigeration) http://www.sseec.eu/Solid_State_Energy_Efficient_Cooling.html
Magnetocaloric Effect (Solid State Magnetic Refrigeration) Need to find the right material… http://www.sseec.eu/Solid_State_Energy_Efficient_Cooling.html
Onsager Reciprocity Spin dependant Seebeck effect Spin dependant Peltier effect Lars Onsager received the Nobel prize for Chemistry in 1968 "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes“
Harvesting Heat Powered by plutonium- 238 http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/files/mep/MMRTG_Jan2008.pdf NASA Mars Rover
Peltier Cells to Recover Waste Heat Skudderites are a popular TEG material:
Limited Thermoelectric Efficiency? Cost Efficiency Figure of merit Wiedeman Franz Law http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/deer_2004 /session4/2004_deer_fairbanks2.pdf
2007 Nobel Prize: Fert and Grϋnberg (GMR) Giant Magneto Resistance (GMR) achieved by thin films magnetised anti-parallel (with respect to each other).
Moore’s Law http://www.mooreslaw.org/ Intel Corp. “Number of transistors doubles every 2 years” “Data storage density doubles every 2 years” “Processing power doubles every 2 years” GMR
What Exactly is Spintronics? Using charge and spin to contain information: Four possible states (qubits). D. Pesin and A.H. MacDonald, Nature Materials, 11, 409-416 (2012) Giant MR Andreev Reflection Current induced spin polarisation in PMs Spin Hall effect in PMs
The Spin Seebeck Effect B V ISHE TT MaterialSpin Current Charge Current Normal metal Ferromagnetic metal Ferromagnetic semiconductor Ferromagnetic insulator V ISHE TT Transverse spin SeebeckLongitudinal spin Seebeck A spin current may flow in an electric insulator
Aside: How do You Detect a Spin Current? Spin Hall Effect: Generation of a spin polarised current due to charge current flowing from a paramagnet to a ferromagnet. Inverse Spin Hall Effect: Generation of a voltage – E ISHE – due to a spin polarised current. Heavy metals such as Pt are typically very good for detection of J s by generation of E ISHE.
Can be thought of as the efficiency with which a spin current, J S is converted to a charger current, J C. Aside: Spin Hall Angle ElementSpin Hall Angle, θ SH (%) Al0.02 Au0.25 — 11 Bi>0.8 Cu0.22 Mo-0.05 — -0.8 Nb-0.87 Pd0.64 — 1 Pt1.3 — 11 Ta-0.37 — -12 W-33
Maximising V ISHE, Minimising Cost Contact Cost of host metal ($/g) Cost of dopant ($/g) Total cost of contact ($/g) Measured (M), or predicted (P), spin Hall angle (%) Pt50.95- 1.2 to 11 (M) Cu0.12- 0.22  (M) Cu+1% Pt0.12510.63 2.7  (P) Cu+1% Bi0.120.020.12 8.1  (P) Cu+1% Ta0.126.30.18 -1  (P) Ag0.71- 0.47  (M) Ag+1% Pt0.71511.21 1.0  (P) Ag+1% Bi0.710.020.71.4  (P)  A. Hoffman, IEEE Trans. Magn., 49, 5172 (2013).  H.L. Wang et al., arXiv:1307.2648 (2013).  M. Gradhand et al., Phys. Rev. B, 81 245109 (2010).  A. Fert and P.M. Levy, Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 157208 (2011).
Impact of the Spin Seebeck Effect Thermal transport Spin transport Charge transport Reduced fabrication costs Spintronics Spin valves Magnetic heat switches Tunnel junctions Quantum Computing Physical Sciences Increased figure of merit, ZT Thermoelectrics Energy Energy efficiency Energy storage Materials for energy applications Information and Communication Technologies Thermal spin transfer torque Non-CMOS technology
Available PhD project. “As part of the PhD you will be expected to characterise potential spin Seebeck samples using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, transport measurements, thermal transport and magnetometry. It is also likely that you will prepare patterned thin films using pulsed laser deposition and physical vapour deposition techniques.” http://homepages.lboro.ac.uk/~phkm2/Phd.htm
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