Presentation on theme: "Topic 5 Bridging the Development Gap"— Presentation transcript:
1Topic 5 Bridging the Development Gap MB1MB2MB3Describe the development gapExplain the development indicators andEvaluate different measures of development including indices
2How is this unit examined? 2 ½ hour written exam, including pre-released synoptic resources (4 weeks in advance) Part 1 – 5 out of 6 topics Part 2 – 6th topic in a synoptic context (will pull together aspects of the other 5 topics) 30% of A level
35.1 What is the nature of the development gap? How has it arisen? What is the development gap?What would a developed country be like?What would an undeveloped country be like?So what is development?
5Starter Using your mini whiteboards suggest the following: What is the development gap?How do we measure development?What indicators can we use?
6Development What is Development? Not just the difference between the developed, rich and powerful countries and those less developed. Within each country there are differing levels of prosperity and developmentWhat is it measured by?GNPHDI – Human development Index 0-1,1 being best – uses income per capita, adult literacy, life expectancy.Development Indicators
7Explaining development Do you remember the food crisis of 2008?
8Explaining development Do you remember the food crisis of 2008? This is probably because you were well-sheltered from the worst because we live in a developed country. p179
10Global food crisisWhich of the following are real causes for the rise in food prices since 2006:Growth of biofuelsRising demand in NICsClimate changeRising demand for cattle feedDiseases wiping out cropsTraders hoarding foodRising oil pricesChange in agricultural policiesExtreme weatherGlobalisation
11Global food crisisWhich of the following are real causes for the rise in food prices since 2006:Growth of biofuelsRising demand in NICsRising demand for cattle feedTraders hoarding foodRising oil pricesChange in agricultural policiesExtreme weather
13The food price crisis shows how susceptible less-developed countries are to price rises. What happened to food prices in 2008?Why was this?Using the Philippines as an example, explain how a development gap was shown by the way in which the food crisis affected its people.What is the development gap?
145.1 What is the nature of the development gap? How has it arisen? How can we measure it?Take a map and show the north-south divide line (Brandt line).
15The development gapThe geography of the development gap is more complex than a simple ‘North-South divide’Latin America has HDI levels similar to eastern Europe; China’s HDI and some others in SE Asia are relatively highSouth Asia has a concentration of levels below 0.6Level in the Middle East are relatively high, although not in Yemen, Syria and IraqThe picture for Africa is very complex, with the extreme north and south having decent HDI levels, but some regions with shockingly low numbers
16Development Indicators? How can we accurately measure development between countries?
22BurgernomicsTHE ECONOMIST's Big Mac index is based on the theory of purchasing-power parity: in the long run, exchange rates should adjust to equal the price of a basket of goods and services in different countries. This particular basket holds a McDonald's Big Mac, whose price around the world we compared with its American average of $4.20.
24Understanding indicators… Take an atlas ands find 10 contrasting countries. Analyse them using 5 development indicators. Rank them according to each indicators and add up the totals. The least scores shows the most developed
26Measuring development Measuring development levels is a challenge.Traditionally development has measured using economic data such as GDP or GNI per capita.These measures fail to recognise:Income distributionThe local value of moneyThe non-money economy e.g. barter and exchangeIt is also important to recognise that development has social and quality of life aspectsMeasures such as life expectancy, education level, access to sanitation are importantThis basket of goods costs 112 Indian Rupees in India, the equivalent of £1.50*. To buy the same basket of goods in the UK would cost around £6.The difference in how much goods and services really cost, is why PPP (purchasing power parity) GDP income is used rather than ‘raw’ GDP.Using raw GDP per capita average income in India is about $1000, but PPP GDP per capita income is $2800*data for Dec 2009
27As the development cable model (right) shows, development is a multi-faceted process At its core is economic development, but to achieve real progress social, political, environmental and personal development is also needed.Recognising the complex nature of development is why development is often measured using an index, which combines a range of dataIndices are considered more accurate than single data points such as GDP per capita.Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)Life expectancy + Literacy rate + Infant Mortality rateThe Human Development Index (HDI)Life expectancy at birth + Literacy rate + Enrolment rate + GDP per capita PPP
28Measuring development: Explain what they are and how each measurement worksGDPGNIPPPHDIWhich is the best method in your opinion? Explain why.
30Make up and perfumes in the world Have you ever thought howmuch is spent in the worldon basic needs and luxuries?How much would it cost to:How much is spent on:Make up and perfumes in the worldevery year?Eliminate world hunger?$19 billion$33 billionClean water for everyone?Ocean cruises$10 billion$14 billionProvide the ability foreveryone to read and write?Ice cream in Europe every year$11 billion$5 billion
31Measuring development: Explain what they are and how each measurement worksGDPGNIPPPHDIWhich is the best method in your opinion? Explain why.Why is the situation more complex today?The Human Development Index (HDI)Life expectancy at birth + Literacy rate + Enrolment rate + GDP per capita PPPPhysical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)Life expectancy + Literacy rate + Infant Mortality rate
33Awe can also measure development through looking at the progress towards Millennium development Goals - Are MDGs a better measure?
34Is the development gap widening or becoming narrower – what do you think?
35The development gap ...... is the difference in levels of social well-being and economic development between the poorest and the richest people on the planet... is the divide between rich and poor or the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’... can exist on different scales... involves social and economic differences
41Is the development gap widening or becoming narrower – what do you think? Yes – the development gap is narrowing, the world is becoming a better placeNo – the development gap is widening and the world is not becoming a better placeBoth – the development gap is widening and narrowing at the same time; it is different in different places
42The development gap – the evidence NarrowingThere has been global development, particularly in AsiaMany poorer countries, like China and India, are industrialisingWideningDevelopment in much of Africa has lagged behind, although the percentage of people in poverty has decreased actual numbers have increased as population has grownWorldwide, one billion people live on less than US$1 dollar a dayThere is an urban–rural divide in many countries, like MexicoEconomic growth is increasing the divide between extreme wealth and poverty in some countries, like BrazilThe gap between rich and poor people living in both richer and poorer countries is growingThe development gap has narrowed for some people but not for others
48RegionLife expectancyInfant mortalityUnder-nourishmentNorth AmericaWestern EuropeEurasia (Eastern Europe and CIS)Latin America and CaribbeanMiddle East and North AfricaSub-Saharan AfricaEastern Asia (China)South-East Asia and Pacific RimSouth Asia (Indian sub-continent)Australasia
49How is the world more complex today than Brandt suggested in the 1980s?