1.Overview 2.Requirements of the specification 3.What are unequal spaces? 4.Investigating unequal spaces 5.Ideas for fieldwork 6.Research on unequal spaces 7.Making it work for the exam CONTENTS Click on the information icon to jump to that section. Click on the home button to return to this contents page
1. Overview Unit 2 has four components, but you are only required to study two of these. In the 75 minute exam you answer one question based on your two chosen topic areas. This means there is no choice. This exam is designed to test both knowledge and understanding of geographical concepts as well as geographical skills. Fieldwork, research and the enquiry process lie at the heart of this exam. The most important ways of ensuring the highest possible grades in this module is (i) being able to focus on the question set, (ii) to be able to use resources effectively, and (iii) to get your fieldwork in a form that works for the exam. UNIT 2: The Paired Options –you only study one in each pair! The ‘Physical’ Pair 1.Extreme Weather 2.Crowded Coasts The ‘Human’ Pair 1.Unequal Spaces 2.Rebranding
UNIT 2 – Assessment overview and structure Normally the first part of each question starts with a data stimulus element. The fieldwork and research elements are related directly to work you have carried out during a field trip AND may involve questions about how you processed, interpreted etc what you found. The remaining question is more management and issues based. Here case study knowledge will be required. The data stimulus in unlikely to be the 15 mark question Data stimulus with an analysis element is possible
1. Recognising that inequality is all around Inequality is really uneveness – the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’. In geography we are often concerned with patterns of inequality at a range of scales.
Unpacking the idea of unequal spaces: different types of inequality Inequality exists as the distribution of resources, wealth and opportunities is not evenly spread. In other words, how easy or difficult it is to get access to resources etc. Different groups will find it easier or harder to access certain resources. Economic inequality Uneven distribution of wealth Access to financial resources Social inequality Access to housing, healthcare Education, employment Environmental inequality Different types of environments with varying qualities / appeal Technological inequality Access to technology, e.g. fast broadband, computers etc
Processes leading to inequality? Some social groups are disadvantaged due to lack of services in an area, e.g. Access to healthcare Access to services Poverty, poor housing and social exclusion can create a downward spiral leading to a reduction in quality of life Quality of life Economic opportunity and access to assets / resources may be controlled by local employment, education, crime, skills + social background Economic opportunity Many of the processes leading to inequality are interlinked
Recognising inequality in Sheffield: an example A recent report from the University of Sheffield illustrates how the city if very divided The distribution of the poorest people tends to be most concentrated in the central and eastern areas of the city Highest levels of educational attainment (average KS3 score) are in the far south and west of the city. These are the more affluent areas.
2. Inequality for whom? Inequality, social exclusion and polarisation (increasing differences between different parts of society) can be divisive and socially damaging At the global scale there is much inequality with Mexico at the top of the league. Britain's inequality is well above the average for OECD nations, far greater than Sweden, Denmark, Holland, France or Germany s_inequality_iniquitous.html
Comparing cost of living inequalities for different types of rural areas It is generally accepted that the cost of living in rural areas is more expensive than urban areas. This data, however shows how living in a hamlet is more expensive than living in a rural town. Additional transports are mostly to blame. Source – Joseph Roundtree Foundation report on rural inequality The table shows - Additional weekly rural costs for rural household types, compared with UK average: cash difference and rural cost as percentage increase on corresponding urban budget (excluding housing costs and childcare). “A family with two children in a village requires nearly £60 a week more to achieve the same minimum living standard as an urban family, adding 15 per cent to the budget.” Annual household mileages for different rural areas and people
An example: the digital divide in Britain Source 008/may/22/internet.digitalmedia One area where there is considerable inequality in the UK is the availability of cable digital TV and high speed broadband. Availability is controlled by geographical remoteness and population densities The digital information and communications sector is one of the sectors in the economy, alongside energy and financial services, upon which the whole of the economy rests. The average British adult spends almost half of all their waking hours using the services of the communications sector or browsing, watching or listening to the audio-visual content it distributes.
3. Managing rural inequalities Inequality is often hidden and overlooked in rural areas so range of strategies and stakeholders may be involved in any interventions. In rural areas there is often network poverty. Networks are family, friends, social facilities and community support. Solution such as community transport schemes can help to manage this Schemes to reduce the poverty of inaccessibility Transport is needed to allow people to access work, education, health and shopping facilities Schemes to reduce financial poverty. E.g. tackle seasonal and under-employment, provide better paid higher-value knowledge economy jobs
Example of reducing rural inequality: Ecotourism in Kenya A number of factors: cheaper travel, interest in far off places, adventure tourism etc have led to a boom in ecotourism in places such as the game reserves of Kenya It can provide some key benefits at a range of scales, e.g. employment, foreign exchange, alternative to traditional cash crops, raises importance of globally important, but sensitive ecosystems etc. In some instances ‘leakage’ occurs whereby foreign companies take profits out from the local economy by piggybacking the tourism trade. It is complex to assess in these instances whether ecotourism is actually a way of reducing inequalities
4. Managing urban inequalities Social, economic and environmental inequalities occur in almost all urban areas. Big contrasts in wealth, standards of living and exclusion can side by side, although clearly segregated
Thinking about fieldwork and research When preparing notes for revision don’t just list what you did. Add depth with places and examples of EQUIPMENT, NUMBER of surveys, details of LAND USE MAPS, even talk about SAMPLING. The best answers often to refer to real fieldwork and real places. Recognising inequality Inequality for whom Managing rural inequalities Managing urban inequalities 4 x Key fieldwork + research focuses ‘In the field’ can mean a variety of things. ‘Top- up’ from other sources if necessary to give coverage Investigating unequal spaces
Some examples of fieldwork There is a range of different types of fieldwork possible linked to inequality Key is to make the link between your fieldwork activities and the exam
A range documentary evidence (e.g. specialist reports, census data etc) can help reveal the scale and range of inequality for different places. It may also reveal something about the causes. You may also find evidence of ways in which inequality is being managed. Refer to and make notes on particular schemes. Opportunities for research
Witness accounts and blogs – another research source The reasons for / impacts of inequality are often best examined through online reports and blogs (see example below). YouTube and similar sites may also be a rich source of documented evidence. Websites such as Wordle can be used to analyse the text in documents and reports – the most frequently used words are displayed using the largest font. Within your school or college it may be useful to look back at data that was collected by students a few years ago. This is most likely available in an electronic form.
A range of fieldwork follow-up options may be appropriate in order to better prepare for the exam. The most important activities are in the light green boxes ACTIVITY 1 – METHODOLOGY WRITE-UP. Give a focus on the techniques and approaches used, how the sites were selected, justification etc. Remember to include both fieldwork and research ideas. ACTIVITY 2 – PRESENTATION and ANALYSIS. Give a focus on the range of techniques used to present the data and say why you used them. Also include a description of how and why data was analysed (including qualitative, e.g. Annotation of photographs etc). ACTIVITY 3 – RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS and EVALUATION. Give a focus on what you found, including some locational detail. You should also give details of selected results, and provide an evaluative framework, e.g. limitations, reliability of results etc. Peer review of other modeled exam responses. Use highlighting, annotation etc to learn from other peoples work. This could be linked to a mark scheme, A fieldwork glossary...very useful to help with technical language in the exam. This could be linked to a techniques matrix (see next slide). A GIS / Google Earth map showing the locations visited as place marks. Mock exam questions completed under timed conditions, linked to each of the three activities above. A PowerPoint presentation, to focus on giving a ‘virtual tour’ of the locations / and or findings. Following-up the inequality fieldwork?