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Edge Research Conference 14 th November 2014 #EdgeResearchConference.

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1 Edge Research Conference 14 th November 2014 #EdgeResearchConference

2 STEM related Apprenticeship Provision in England: The views of employers and other stakeholders Colin McCaig CEIR, Sheffield Hallam University Edge Research Conference 14 November 2014 Birmingham NEC

3 Outline of presentation Supply and demand picture The qualitative study Employer recruitment of apprentices The role of apprentices in the organisation Factors inhibiting demand Models to stimulate employer demand Conclusions

4 Supply and demand for STEM Apprenticeships High value-added sectors of the economy have a relatively high demand for STEM skills (e.g. advanced manufacturing, construction, finance, health, etc.) Even if employment in an industry is contracting, the level of replacement demands are often relatively high Employers have degree of choice about how they obtain STEM skills (e.g. Apprenticeship versus graduate recruitment) What is known about employer demand for STEM Apprenticeships? And what do we know about supply?

5 Highest qualification of these working in STEM occupations

6 The supply of STEM Apprenticeships (1)

7 The study - qualitative We carried out a total of 79 interviews during the May-June period Some of the interviews were as part of 15 case studies - Some were telephone interviews - Carried out a short email survey of GTAs Also interviewed 14 'stakeholders' as part of interim report so - 93 people in all contributed to this study Key questions: how can supply be stimulated? what are the barriers?

8 Employer recruitment of apprentices Employers were looking for suitably qualified young people (5 GCSEs or more) with an interest in the industry / occupation they were entering In general, employers had little difficulty recruiting their STEM apprentices (especially so amongst larger organisations) Smaller employers – or those in non-traditional STEM industries – tended to experience more difficulty because larger organisations tended to have first pick of suitably qualified apprentices Some employers in engineering had concerns over the mathematics skills of apprentices – they wanted their recruits ideally to be more mathematically prepared

9 The role of the apprentice in the organisation In general, graduate and apprentices roles were distinct in organisations –Graduates were there to fill professional / managerial roles –Apprentices to fill manual / first line management roles Making the jump from apprenticeship into management was possible but not expected Level 4 Apprenticeships may be used to equip apprentices to fill technician level roles rather than professional ones In traditional STEM sectors, the separate roles of apprentices and graduates had developed over time

10 Factors inhibiting demand For large companies in traditional STEM sectors, there were no factors inhibiting demand other than the overall level of demand for good and services For smaller companies, with little experience of recruiting apprentices a number of factors constrained demand: –Uncertainty about future levels of business demand, especially where contracts were of short duration –A degree of uncertainty over what the apprentice may bring to the business and whether they would stay –Concerns about the potential cost versus the benefits The above views were derived from employers which had recruited apprentices but were still uncertain about how Apprenticeships would work out in practice - employers without Apprenticeships mirrored these concerns

11 Stimulating demand How to reduce uncertainty: Group training –Evidence that this removed much of the risk from those employers which were uncertain about the fit between Apprenticeships and their businesses But this potentially passes on the risk to other bodies Using existing capacity to develop Apprenticeships –Several large employers/consortia of employers had their own large-scale training centres –Evidence that some other local employers were using these facilities to train their apprentices So there is the potential to use any excess training capacity in larger firms to train STEM apprentices

12 Conclusion If supply is meeting demand it is finely balanced Employers have the supply to meet expected output demand because the cost of training in excess of demand is too expensive But should there be a sudden increase in demand, then shortages may well occur Employers pointed to national infrastructure projects often attracting many skilled employees and high quality apprentices thereby depleting their supply But employers are risk averse because of the relatively high cost of training young people in STEM subjects So the key question is how to mitigate that risk

13 Edge Research Conference 14 th November 2014 #EdgeResearchConference

14 Creating an Inclusive Apprenticeship Offer Caroline Berry Head of Learning for Work and Head of Research Charlotte Robey Researcher 14 November 2014

15 Aim of the project Policy context: – Involving employers in shaping skills provision and delivery – Focus on Apprenticeships: new approaches and increasing numbers – Issues with access and quality – Fall in proportion of apprentices with a learning difficulty and/or disability Introduction and background

16 Literature review Online survey Telephone interviews Case study visits Employers involved were small, medium and large businesses and covered a range of sectors Research methodology

17 35% of survey respondents had hired a disabled apprentice Advertised vacancies in a range of places Worked with partner organisations Reasonable adjustments at interview and initial assessment On the job support Support to progress Barriers to recruiting disabled apprentices Support to overcome barriers Findings

18 Alan Cooper Cabinetmaker Barclays Bank PLC Enable Housing Association Leicester City Council Luton and Dunstable University Hospital Trust tpm and the Dyslexia Foundation Case studies

19 Further information and contact details

20 Edge Research Conference 14 th November 2014 #EdgeResearchConference

21 Providing work experience: how do we achieve high-quality placements? David Sims and Sarah Lynch Edge Research Conference 2014

22 Work experience trials 25 pilot FE colleges testing models of work experience delivery:  Removing cost barriers for employers  Investigating challenges faced by SMEs  Extra resources for colleges  Exploring timing of placements  Supporting LLDD Funding from DfE of £177k over two years (2011-12/2012-13)

23 ? Methods: - Initial scoping study - Ten case studies - Analysis of Management Information and financial data Evaluation aims and methods: Aims: To evaluate the different models of work experience for post-16 students, exploring the implementation process, impact on students and employers, and identifying lessons learned – what works/implications for providing successful, quality work experience?

24 Nature and location of work experience Preparation: : CVs, interview skills, matching students and employers, preparing students for the real world Location: all case-study colleges offered external placements with employers, most also offered internal placements at the college Type of work experience: predominately ‘vocational’, but examples of ‘extended’ placements/Supported Internship model for LLDD students; real-world and purposeful Flexible timing: Mix of blocks and separate days across colleges Models: combination of models, most often resources to employ a coordinator or support for LLDD

25 Employer engagement Trial helped to increase and enhance employer engagement Role of coordinator crucial in developing and maintaining relationships with employers Having a broad range of employers, in terms of size and scope, was seen as important, in order to provide a variety of placements Employers see it as corporate social responsibility – to link with community and develop future workforce Incentives for employers not used/needed Obstacles: some sectors; misunderstandings about insurance liabilities; health and safety

26 Impact of the trial On students:  Development of skills/behaviours necessary to make them ‘work ready’ (team work, communication, confidence, attendance)  Positive impact on LLDD: confidence, independence, behaviour  Some students gained employment On colleges:  Changed ethos e.g. centralised/holistic approach to work experience; increased relationships with employers; increased provision/numbers benefiting On employers:  Developing future workforce; extra capacity; CPD of own staff; meeting corporate social responsibilities

27 Success factors: steps to take in providing quality work experience 5. Prior preparation of employer (inc. setting aims) 6. Ensure support is in place for student, inc. LLDD 7. Monitoring and reflection 8. Feedback to employers 1. Appointment of coordinator 2. Be flexible with timing of work experience 3. Match students and employers carefully 4. Prior preparation of student

28 For further information: The NFER website: The evaluation report: David Sims Sarah Lynch

29 Edge Research Conference 14 th November 2014 #EdgeResearchConference

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