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Social Development: From Targeted Policies on Poverty Reduction to Comprehensive Social Policies BOB DEACON Professor of International Social Policy University.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Development: From Targeted Policies on Poverty Reduction to Comprehensive Social Policies BOB DEACON Professor of International Social Policy University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Development: From Targeted Policies on Poverty Reduction to Comprehensive Social Policies BOB DEACON Professor of International Social Policy University of Sheffield ICSW Conference, TOURS July 3 rd 2008

2 OVERVIEW Globalisation HAS negatively affected welfare state building in much of the Global South Globalisation HAS negatively affected welfare state building in much of the Global South This has primarily been through the politics of globalisation This has primarily been through the politics of globalisation This has been because the global politics of poverty alleviation has pushed aside the global politics of welfare state building This has been because the global politics of poverty alleviation has pushed aside the global politics of welfare state building In trying to rebuild a global politics of welfare state building we are faced with two problems: In trying to rebuild a global politics of welfare state building we are faced with two problems: a) The globalisation of the middle class in some developing/transition countries a) The globalisation of the middle class in some developing/transition countries b) The impasse in global politics with a Global North failing in its promises while some in the Global South wish to be independent of aid from North b) The impasse in global politics with a Global North failing in its promises while some in the Global South wish to be independent of aid from North

3 Historical Overview The promise of post-colonial and state lead development The promise of post-colonial and state lead development The “destruction” of the embryonic (and partial) welfare states of Latin America and Africa by the rise of the global politics of targeted poverty alleviation The “destruction” of the embryonic (and partial) welfare states of Latin America and Africa by the rise of the global politics of targeted poverty alleviation The role of the World Bank’s beneficiary index The role of the World Bank’s beneficiary index The role of the WTO/GATS and IFC in private education, health and pensions. The role of the WTO/GATS and IFC in private education, health and pensions. The MDGs are framed within this tradition of focus on the poor The MDGs are framed within this tradition of focus on the poor

4 The Globalised Middle Class The failure to understand the lesson of inclusive welfare state building (The CENTRALITY of middle class buy-in) The failure to understand the lesson of inclusive welfare state building (The CENTRALITY of middle class buy-in) The aid business has played a part in seducing the professional and middle class of developing countries from the role they used to occupy: “Seduced by access to the dollar economy they prioritise acquiring skills for the requirements of the aid cartel”…“the intellectual and entrepreneurial class must choose between a self-referential and parasitic post- developmentalism, and national(ist) development projects…….building the revenue base of the public economy” (Gould J 2004) “Seduced by access to the dollar economy they prioritise acquiring skills for the requirements of the aid cartel”…“the intellectual and entrepreneurial class must choose between a self-referential and parasitic post- developmentalism, and national(ist) development projects…….building the revenue base of the public economy” (Gould J 2004)

5 Back to and Beyond Copenhagen: Global Alliance for Welfare States Backcloth of Copenhagen 1995 Commitments Backcloth of Copenhagen 1995 Commitments World Bank 2005: Soc Dev. New Frontiers of Social Policy (TSSD) (Dani) (De Haan) (WDR 2004, 2006) World Bank 2005: Soc Dev. New Frontiers of Social Policy (TSSD) (Dani) (De Haan) (WDR 2004, 2006) WDR 2004 “Services for Poor People are Poor Services” WDR 2004 “Services for Poor People are Poor Services” ILO and EU 2007: Injection of Decent Work as MDG Target. Decent Work includes employment, labour standards, social dialogue and social protection ILO and EU 2007: Injection of Decent Work as MDG Target. Decent Work includes employment, labour standards, social dialogue and social protection Help Age International: Social Pensions (Livingstone and 2008 post-Livingstone). Africa commitments. Help Age International: Social Pensions (Livingstone and 2008 post-Livingstone). Africa commitments.

6 Continued Kellokoski 2007 Northern Donors: New Consensus on Comprehensive Social Policy for Development Kellokoski 2007 Northern Donors: New Consensus on Comprehensive Social Policy for Development UNDESA 2007 Social Policy Guidance Notes UNDESA 2007 Social Policy Guidance Notes UNDESA/ILO/UNICEF?/ICSW? 2008 A Global Social Floor (Ortiz.. UNDESA/ILO/UNICEF?/ICSW? 2008 A Global Social Floor (Ortiz.. Paid for in part by Increased ODA to government budgets via a strengthened ONE-UN Paid for in part by Increased ODA to government budgets via a strengthened ONE-UN

7 2008: Challenges to the New Global Consensus on Social Policies Are the disconnected global middle class catered for by even the new consensus? Are the disconnected global middle class catered for by even the new consensus? BRICS and uncertain contribution to global discourse on desirable social policy BRICS and uncertain contribution to global discourse on desirable social policy Stalling of Gleneagles G8 (2005) promises and failure to increase ODA via government budgets Stalling of Gleneagles G8 (2005) promises and failure to increase ODA via government budgets South-South Co-operation and wish to end dependency on Northern ODA and opposition to UN reform South-South Co-operation and wish to end dependency on Northern ODA and opposition to UN reform (Climate/Eco/Food crisis cross cuts development prospects) (Climate/Eco/Food crisis cross cuts development prospects)

8 The Policy Agenda for Future Refocus on effective accountable state building (including infrastructure of law, courts, civil servants, revenue raising) (Aziz…) Refocus on effective accountable state building (including infrastructure of law, courts, civil servants, revenue raising) (Aziz…) Refocus on (universal) public services (health, education and social security) for middle class/salaried civil servants as well as the poor Refocus on (universal) public services (health, education and social security) for middle class/salaried civil servants as well as the poor Refocus on Southern Regional Cooperation with a Social Dimension (Regional Social Policy: Ortiz…) Refocus on Southern Regional Cooperation with a Social Dimension (Regional Social Policy: Ortiz…) Continue to pursue transfer of Northern funds to Southern governments/regions and a stronger UN Continue to pursue transfer of Northern funds to Southern governments/regions and a stronger UN (Connect this agenda to climate/eco/food crisis?) (Connect this agenda to climate/eco/food crisis?)

9 Why do NGOs North and South need to support this agenda? NGOs need effective states to be effective lobbyists NGOs need effective states to be effective lobbyists NGOs work best when supplementing state welfare effort not replacing it. NGOs work best when supplementing state welfare effort not replacing it. NGOs have a huge potential to work at regional level to counter regional elites. NGOs have a huge potential to work at regional level to counter regional elites. Disorganised global migration consequent upon a failure to address these issues impinges on Social Work efforts in the North and South. Disorganised global migration consequent upon a failure to address these issues impinges on Social Work efforts in the North and South.

10 Sources Deacon, B (2007) Global Social Policy and Governance, SAGE, Deacon, B (2007) Global Social Policy and Governance, SAGE, Deacon, B. Ortiz, I. Zelenev, S. (2007) Regional Social Policy, UN DESA Working Paper No 37, ST/ESA/2007/DWP/37 (www.un.org) Deacon, B. Ortiz, I. Zelenev, S. (2007) Regional Social Policy, UN DESA Working Paper No 37, ST/ESA/2007/DWP/37 (www.un.org)www.un.org Deacon, B, Van Langenhove L, Yeates, N. (in preparation) Global Governance, Regional Integration and Social Policy, Routledge. Deacon, B, Van Langenhove L, Yeates, N. (in preparation) Global Governance, Regional Integration and Social Policy, Routledge. Cohen, S. (2004) Searching for a different future: the rise of the global middle class. Durham, NC, Duke University Press Cohen, S. (2004) Searching for a different future: the rise of the global middle class. Durham, NC, Duke University Press Gould, J. (2005) The New Conditionality: The politics of poverty reduction strategies, London, Zed Press Gould, J. (2005) The New Conditionality: The politics of poverty reduction strategies, London, Zed Press Global Social Policy Digest in GSP updates: See Global Social Policy Digest in GSP updates: See Ortiz, I (2007) Social Policy Guidance Notes: New York, UNDESA Ortiz, I (2007) Social Policy Guidance Notes: New York, UNDESA Yeates, N. Deacon, B. (2006) Globalism, Regionalism and Social Policy: framing the debate. UNU-CRIS Occasional Papers /6 Yeates, N. Deacon, B. (2006) Globalism, Regionalism and Social Policy: framing the debate. UNU-CRIS Occasional Papers /6 Yeates, N (ed) (2008). Understanding Global Social Policy, Policy Press. Yeates, N (ed) (2008). Understanding Global Social Policy, Policy Press. Wiman R et al (2007). Comprehensive Social Policies for Development. Min For Affairs, Finland for-development Wiman R et al (2007). Comprehensive Social Policies for Development. Min For Affairs, Finland for-developmentwww.stakes.fi/social-policies- for-developmentwww.stakes.fi/social-policies- for-development


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