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EMC measurements of components. 2 Summary 1. EMC problem examples 2. EM disturbance sources 3. EMC certification ? 4. EMC measurement for electronic systems.

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Presentation on theme: "EMC measurements of components. 2 Summary 1. EMC problem examples 2. EM disturbance sources 3. EMC certification ? 4. EMC measurement for electronic systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 EMC measurements of components

2 2 Summary 1. EMC problem examples 2. EM disturbance sources 3. EMC certification ? 4. EMC measurement for electronic systems 5. EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

3 3 EMC problem examples A typical electromagnetic environment… May 15

4 4 /fall04/63_67.pdf EMC problem examples Electromagnetic interference issues in medical devices EMI typesReported casesDevices Conducted interference 20 (1 death)Cardiac monitor, infusion device, defibrilator… Radiated interference 55 (4 deaths)Pacemaker, ventilator, cardiac monitor LF magnetic field 6 (1 death)Respirator, pacemaker ESD10Respirator, infusion pump Medical device EMI problems reported by FDA between 1979 and suspected EMI problems reported by FDA between 1994 and 2005, with 6 deaths, 170 injuries and 167 malfunctions. 72 % of cases concern implantable devices. May 15

5 5 Electromagnetic interference issues in military systems 29th July 1967 : accident of the American aircraft carrier USS Forrestal. The accidental launching of a rocket blew gas tank and weapon stocks, killing 135 persons and causing damages which needed 7 month reparations. Investigations showed that a radar induced on plane wiring a sufficient parasitic voltage to trigger the launching of the rocket. H.M.S. Sheffield catastrophe: “During the Falklands War, the British Ship H.M.S Sheffield sank after being hit by an Exocet missile. Despite the Sheffield having the most sophisticated antimissile defense system available, the system created EMI to radiocommunications to and among the contingent of Harrier jets assigned to the ship. While the Harriers took off, the missile defense was disengaged to allow communications with the jets and provided a window of opportunity for the Exocet missile.” EMC problem examples May 15

6 6 Electromagnetic interference issues in automotive Interference Technology – October 2011 Mercedez-Benz case: “During the early years of ABS, Mercedez-Benz automobiles equipped with ABS had severe braking problems along a certain stretch of the German autobahn. The brakes were affected by a near-by-near radio transmitter as drivers applied them on the curved section of highway. The near-term solution was to a erect a mesh screen along the roadway to attenuate the EMI. This enabled the brakes to function properly when drivers applied them…. Eventually, automobile ABS was qualified by EMI testing prior to procurement.” EMC problem examples May 15

7 7 Electromagnetic interference issues in aviation « Disturbances of flight instruments causing trajectory deviations appear when one or several passengers switch on electronic devices. » (Air et Cosmos, April 1993) FAA Aviation Safety Reporting System has reported 12 cases of interference in aircraft due to personal electronic devices since NASA publication 1374 (1986 – 1995) EMC problem examples May 15

8 8 Electromagnetic interference issues in space aircraft Vacuum cleaner incident: “During a Spacelab mission in 1985, the crew decided to use the middeck vacuum cleaner instead of the one in the lab. Switching the middeck vacuum on caused the voltage to drop and the Remote Acquisition Unit to shut off. In preflight EMI tests, the vacuum cleaner had not been tested and should not have been used in the lab. This case shows how careful and attentive one must when dealing with EMC.” [Nasa Publication 1374] EMC problem examples May 15

9 9 Various disturbance sources that can affect electronic system operation Natural sources Human activity Intentional emission Non intentional emission Electrostatic discharge EM disturbance sources May 15

10 10 Interferences from telecommunication systems Narrowband emission, modulated signals. Regulation and planification of radioelectric spectrum controlled by ITU-R at international level, and by « Agence Nationale des Fréquences » (ANFR) at French level. Radio- navigation EM disturbance sources May 15

11 11 Interferences from electronic systems Parasitic noise generated by the activity (switching) of any electrical or electronic devices The noiise is usually impulse type  broadband noise. Example : Radiated emission from a 16 bit microcontroller EM disturbance sources May 15

12 12 The EM environment according to ITU-R Ambient field levels defined from EM survey in 70’s. Recent surveys show a 20 – 40 dB increase in semi-enclosed environment. Example: Survey of the average level of electric field in Canada during the 90’s in urban and suburban environment: between 1 and 20 V/m. EM disturbance sources May 15

13 13 The EM environment EM disturbance sources Site Agence Nationale des Fréquences (www.anfr.fr) – outil Cartoradio.www.anfr.fr Champ E Etot = 4.35 V/m Distance antenne – point de mesure = 60m May 15

14 14  EM disturbances can induce major failures in electronic systems.  The parasitic emission and susceptibility to EM disturbances must be tested to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of an electronic systems within a nominal environment. Summary  But it is a tedious task because: Diversity in terms of electronic devices Numerous types of disturbances (LF, HF, pulsed, modulated), numerous EM environment Various EM coupling possibilities (conducted, radiated, near- field…) How defining generic tests to guarantee EMC for any electronic systems in any EM environment, with an industrial realism ? May 15

15 15 The EMC certification The European directive 89/336/EEC (1996) and then 2004/108/EC (2004) requires that all « electrical apparatus » placed on the European market :  Do not produce electromagnetic interferences able to disturb radio or telecom equipments, and the normal operation of all equipments  Have a sufficient immunity level to electromagnetic interferences to prevent any degradation of the normal operation. CE mark All manufacturers of « electrical apparatus » must certify that the directive is supposed respected by delivering a declaration of conformity and placing a CE mark on the product. Using harmonized standards adapted to the product to verify the supposition of conformity is recommended EMC European Directive May 15

16 16 The EMC certification R&TTE European Directive The European directive 99/5/EC (1999) Radio & Telecommunications Terminal Equipment which is applied to all telecom and radio equipments emitting on the band 9 KHz – 3000 GHz replace the EMC directive.. R&TTE requires that telecom and radio equipments placed on the European market: :  Comply to safety constraints given by the Low Voltage directive (73/23/EEC) (e.g. the limit of EM exposure for persons) and the EMC constraints given by the EMC directive 2004/108/EC.  Radio equipments use spectral resources dedicated for terrestrial and spatial communications without generating any interferences. R&TTE mark: Required for all equipments under the R&TTE directive Warning signal for class 2 equipments (special recommandations) May 15

17 17 International European International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC) TC77 Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques(CISPR ) IEC X CISPR-XX European Commitee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) EN 300XX EN 50XXX EN 55XXX EN 6XXXX Harmonized standards The EMC certification EMC normative bodies: the importance of EMC standards ! May 15

18 Commercial harmonized standard (non exhaustive list !) Basic standard (general and fundamental rules) EN x (IEC x) EMC – Testing and measurement techniques Generic standard (for equipments in a specific environment) EN (IEC ) Generic Emission Standard, for residential, commercial and light industrial environment EN (IEC ) Generic Immunity Standard, for residential, commercial and industrial environment Product standard (for a specific product family) EN (CISPR22) Information technology equipment (ITE) EN (CISPR14) Household appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus EN (CISPR12) Vehicles, boats and internal combustion engines EN (ETSI ) Electromagnetic compatibility and radio spectrum matters (ERM); Short Range Devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 25 MHz to MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500 mW; EN (ETSI ) Electromagnetic compatibility and radio spectrum matters (ERM); Short Range devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the frequency range 9 KHz to 25 MHz and inductive loop systems in the frequency range 9 KHz to 30 MHz The EMC certification 18 May 15

19 19 Automotive, military, aerospace and railway industries have developed their own EMC standards. ApplicationsStandard references AutomotiveISO 7637, ISO 11452, CISPR 25, SAE J1113 AerospaceDO-160, ED-14 MilitaryMIL-STD-461D, MIL-STD-462D, MIL- STD-461E RailwayEN Commercial harmonized standard (non exhaustive list !) The EMC certification May 15

20 20 Case study 1 The EMC certification You want to place on the European market a ventilator for domestic installation. It is supplied by mains (220 V). Which EMC standard(s) should you follow ? What tests should you conduct for the EMC certification ? May 15

21 Application of EN and 2: “Electromagnetic compatibility – Requirements for household appliances, electric tools and similar apparatus” – Part 1 = Emission, Part 2 = Immunity :  Any domestic electric/electronic equipments, toys, electric tool supplied under 250 V (monophase) (motors, heat elements, thermostats …)  Except light modules (EN55015), radio receivers (EN55025), gaming machine (EN55022). The EMC certification 21 Case study 1 May 15

22 22 Case study 2 The EMC certification Suggested emission tests: Conducted emission150 KHz – 30 / 300 MHz Harmonic and flicker Radiated emission30 MHz – 1 GHz Suggested immunity tests: ESD4 KV contact / 8 KV air EFT / burst5/50 ns, 1 KV, 5 KHz repetition Conducted immunity150 KHz – 230 MHz, 3 V rms Radiated immunity80 – 1000 MHz, 3 V/m, modulation AM 1 KHz 80% Surge1 KV 1.2/50 µs pulse on power Voltage dips and interruptions 40 % variations of the power supply, repeated 5× May 15

23 23 The EMC certification You want to place on the European market a radio emitter/receiver for remote control application in residential environment. The radio emitter use the ISM band around 434 MHz. Its maximum radiated power is limited to 500 mW. The emitter/receiver is an handheld device. Which EMC standard(s) should you follow ? What tests should you conduct for the EMC certification ? Case study 2 May 15

24 24 Case study 2 The EMC certification The harmonized standard EN : “Electromagnetic compatibility and radio spectrum matters (ERM); Short Range devices (SRD); Radio equipment to be used in the 25 MHz to 1000 MHz frequency range with power levels ranging up to 500 mW” is adapted to short range devices :  either with a Radio Frequency (RF) output connection and/or with an integral antenna;  for alarms, identification, telecommand, telemetry, etc., applications;  with or without speech.  It covers fixed stations, mobile stations and portable stations, all types of modulation. May 15

25 25 Case study 2 The EMC certification List of suggested tests: Frequency error or driftDoes the carrier frequency remains stable? Effective radiated powerThe radiated power must not exceed a max. level (< 500 mW) Transient powerThe switching of the transmitter produces interferences in adjacent spectrum Adjacent channel powerThe power transmitted in adjacent band must be limited. Spurious emissionsParasitic emissions from the emitter and receiver between 9 KHz and ?? Must be limited. Frequency stability under low voltage conditions The emission from the transmitter must remain stable even in extreme low power conditions. Duty cycleThe manufacturer must indicate the duty cycle of the equipment Blocking or desensitization Capability of the receiver to receive a wanted signal in presence of unwanted signal Some ESD tests should be also done … May 15

26 26 Case study 3 The EMC certification You are a semiconductor manufacturers and you want to sell your integrated circuits in the European market. Your ICs are dedicated to automotive applications. Which EMC standard(s) should you follow ? What tests should you conduct for the EMC certification ? May 15

27 27 Case study 3 The EMC certification If your integrated circuits can not operate by themselves, you don’t need EMC certification. However, your customers will certainly push you to guarantee the low emission and susceptibility of your devices, require measurements, models, support…. Examples of standards providing EMC measurement for ICs: IEC 61967: Integrated Circuits, Measurement of Electromagnetic Emissions, 150 kHz to 1 GHz IEC 62132: Integrated circuits - Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to 1 GHz ISO11452: Road vehicles - Electrical disturbances by narrowband electromagnetic energy - Component test methods ISO 7637 or IEC /4/5 for ESD, pulse, surge testing. May 15

28 28 Why EMC standard measurement methods Check EMC compliance of ICs, equipments and systems Comparison of EMC performances between different products, different technologies, designs, PCB routings Improve interaction between customers and providers (same protocols, same set-up) EMC measurement for electronic systems May 15

29 29 EMC measurement for electronic systems Equipment / Device under test Coupling device Coupling network Antennas Wave guide Current clamp… Acquisition system Spectrum analyzer EMI receiver Oscilloscope Emission measurements – General measurement set-up Radiated or conducted coupling 50Ω adapted path Control - Acquisition Emission requirements verified ? May 15

30 30 EMC measurement for electronic systems Emission measurements – Emission spectrum Amplitude (dBµV) Frequency (MHz) May 15

31 31 EMC measurement for electronic systems Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver) Frequency adjustment : Start, stop, center Amplitude adjustment : Level reference, dynamic. Emission measurement requires high sensitivity and resolution Emission measurement standards often recommend spectrum analyzer adjustment RBW – frequency resolution, noise floor reduction VBW – smooth display 50 Ohm input X= frequency Y= power (dBm, dBµV) May 15

32 32 EMC measurement for electronic systems Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver) Principle: based on super heterodyne receiver IN f F rf LO f F lo Input signal Local oscillator Output signal OUT f F if F rf +F l o ω if Mixer IF filter OUT f F if IF filter A No RBW P = ½.A²+No.RBW Detected power: May 15

33 33 Attenuator DC blocking Low pass filter Gain IF IF filter Analog filter Gain log Video filter Mixers Local oscillator Reference oscillator Frequency sweep Display Envelope detector Building blocks and adjustable elements: Input signal RBW VBW Detector Attenuation F start / F stop F center / Span Point number EMC measurement for electronic systems Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver) May 15

34 34 Example: effect of RBW and VBW. Measurement of 100 MHz sinus. Amplitude = 90 dBµV Amplitude = 20 dBµV Sweep time : RBW = 100 KHz  2.5 ms RBW = 10 KHz  100 ms Sweep time : VBW = 30 KHz  100 ms VBW = 1 KHz  980 ms EMC measurement for electronic systems Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver) May 15

35 35 Example: Influence of detector type (peak vs. quasi-peak vs. average). Measurement of radiated emission of a microcontroller. EMC measurement for electronic systems Emblematic EMC equipment – Spectrum Analyzer (EMI receiver) May 15

36 36 Device under test Wide band (calibrated) antenna Power supply, DUT control EMI receiver or spectrum analyzer) Absorbents R = 3 ou 10 m 1 m Faraday cage (with absorbents: semi- anechoic chamber) (Siepel) EN55022 EMC measurement for electronic systems Radiated emission in (semi-)Anechoic chamber (30 MHz – 1 GHz) May 15

37 EMC measurement for electronic systems E field EMI receiver 50 Ω Optional pre-amplifier Low loss 50 Ω cable Bilog antenna (or log-periodic, biconical, dipole…) Vemi Radiated emission in (semi-)Anechoic chamber (30 MHz – 1 GHz) If far field and free space conditions ensured: AF = Antenna factor (from calibration) The E field varies in 1/r with the distance r (the radiated power in 1/r²)  possible extrapolation of field intensity. 37 May 15

38 EMC measurement for electronic systems Radiated emission in (semi-)Anechoic chamber (30 MHz – 1 GHz) Let’s consider a radio receiver (such as a mobile phone). We suppose that it operates at 900 MHz, its antenna has an antenna factor of 29 dB/m, and its receiving floor is -90 dBm. It is placed at 1 m of a “noisy” electronic equipment with a CE Mark. Could you have a risk of interferences ? 38 May 15

39 39 Equipment / Device under test Coupling device Coupling network Antennas Wave guide Clamp… Radiated or conducted coupling Disturbance generation Harmonic signal Transients Burst 50Ω adapted path Failure detection Injected level Extraction Immunity requirements verified ? EMC measurement for electronic systems Immunity measurements – General measurement set-up May 15

40 40 EMC measurement for electronic systems Immunity measurements – General test procedure for harmonic disturbance Start F = Fmin P = Pmin Increase P Wait dwell time Failure or P = Pmax ? Save F and P F = Fmax ? End Increase F Without EMI With EMI Failure Detection mask May 15

41 41 EMC measurement for electronic systems Device under test Wide band (calibrated) antenna Power supply, DUT control Absorbents R = 3 ou 10 m 1 m Faraday cage (with absorbents: semi- anechoic chamber) (Siepel) Radiated immunity in (semi-)Anechoic chamber (30 MHz – 1 GHz) Power amplifier ( > 100 W) Signal synthesizer Field monitoring Typical max. RI level: Commercial product: 3 – 10 V/m Automotive (ISO ): 25 – 200 V/m Military (MIL-STD461E): 20 – 200 V/m Aeronautics (DO160-D): 8 – 800 V/m May 15

42 42 Injection clamp Induced RF current Bus, cable Microcontroler DUT Failure ? Measurement clamp Directional coupler Signal synthesizer RF disturbance Load LISN Induced current measurement Interface circuit Faraday cage  Usually, the max. current is between 50 mA and 300 mA. EMC measurement for electronic systems Immunity measurements – Bulk current injection (BCI) Power amplifier May 15

43 43 EMC measurement for electronic systems Immunity measurements – Pulse, ESD, bursts, surge… Pulse waveforms and severity levels defined by standards such as IEC x or ISO7637 Ideal ESD waveform at 4 KV (IEC ) (level 2) Tr = 0.8 ns I 30 = 8 A I 60 = 4 A I peak = 15 A Ideal Fast transient / burst (IEC ) (level 2) V peak = 1 KV (on 50 Ω) Tr = 5 ns Repetition rate = 5 – 100 KHz Td= 50 ns May 15

44 44 EMC measurement for integrated circuits Why testing EMC for ICs ? Integrated circuits are often the main cause of disturbances in electronic equipment. In recent years, there has been a strong demand for simple, reliable and standardized measurement methods focusing only on integrated circuits that electronic system designers could use to:  Obtain quantitative measure of emission/immunity from ICs establishing a uniform testing environment  Qualify the low emission and high immunity performance of circuit.  Optimize circuit placement, routing, filtering and decoupling components  Evaluate the impact of IC redesign, technology improvement or package modification. May 15

45 45 EMC measurement for integrated circuits Why testing EMC for ICs ? Based on pre existing standards, such as:  CISPR 25 – Radio disturbance characteristics for the protection of receivers used on board vehicles, boats and on devices – Limits and methods of measurements  IEC – Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) – Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques  ISO part 1 to 7, Road vehicles – Electrical disturbances by narrow band radiated electromagnetic energy – Component test methods Measurement methods for EMC of Ics proposed by IEC:  IEC 61967:Integrated circuits -Measurement of electromagnetic emissions, 150 kHz to 1 GHz.  IEC 62132: Integrated circuits - Measurement of electromagnetic immunity, 150 kHz to 1 GHz.  IEC 62215: Integrated circuits – Measurement of impulse immunity May 15

46 46 International standards for IC emission measurement methods IEC (TEM : 1GHz) IEC (GTEM 18 GHz) IEC (WBFC, 1 GHz) IEC (IC-Stripline, 3/6 GHz) IEC (Near field scan, 1/5GHz) IEC (Magnetic field probe, 1GHz) IEC (1/150 ohm, 1 GHz) IEC (Mode stirred chamber, 1 GHz) Conducted method Radiated method TEM Cell improvemnt Investigation method EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

47 47 EMC measurement for integrated circuits IC Conducted emission Oscillator Digital Core I/O Driver VddCore Vdd osc PCB line Load Integrated circuit I core (t) I osc (t) V E/S (t) V driver (t) Two noise sources: internal activity (power supply noise) and I/O switching (Simultaneous Switching Noise, I/O line excitation) Characterization of transient current and voltage induced by ICs. May 15

48 48 EMC measurement for integrated circuits « Local » ground IC Conducted emission - IEC –1 ohm / 150 ohms method IC PCB Decoupling RF current Conducted emission is produced by RF current induced by IC activity. The current induced voltage bounces along power distribution network and radiated emission. The « 1 ohm » method aims at measuring the RF current flowing from circuit Vss pin(s) to the ground reference. Vdd « Global » ground Spectrum analyzer 1 Ω 49 Ω I RF May 15

49 49 IC Conducted emission - IEC –1 ohm / 150 ohms method I/O buffer RF current External load I/O switching is a major contributor to conducted emission. They induced voltage fluctuation along power supply and I/O lines. The « 150 ohms » method aims at measuring the RF voltage induced at one or several IC output. Vdd PCB Decoupling 51 Ω 120 Ω 6.8 nF Spectrum analyzer 150 Ω matching network V RF VAVA EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

50 50 IC current extraction from 1 Ω probe measurement dsPIC33F: measurement in time domain and frequency of the voltage across the 1 Ω probe  proportional to the IC current. EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

51 51 IC Radiated emission - IEC – TEM cell TEM cell (SAE J1752/3) IC under test Emission spectrum Spectrum analyzer Pre-ampli dB Test board Relation between the voltage measured by the spectrum analyzer and the radiated emission from the circuit 50 ohm EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

52 52 TEM cell – EM field inside the waveguide septum Aperture for DUT Port1 Port2 50 Ω y z y x Tapered transition E H O Field repartition: Quasi homogeneous field R.J. Spiegel, and al.,“A Method for Calculating Electric and Magnetic Fields in TEM Cells at ELF”, IEEE Trans. on EMC, Nov o TEM propagation mode up to 1 GHz o |E/H| = 377 Ω W = 15 cm, T = 9 cm, W sept = 10 cm, V = 1 V, y = 8 cm W sept T W EMC measurement for integrated circuits

53 53 TEM cell – Field coupling with a DUT Example: coupling with a 50Ω microstrip line Dimensions of the microstrip: W = 2.5 mm, L = 75 mm, h = 1.6 mm, epsr = 4.5 septum Port1 50 Ω load Port2 VNA Near end Far end Appearance of non TEM propag. mode + 20 dB/dec. EMC measurement for integrated circuits The magnetic field coupling depends of the orientation of the line in the TEM cell.

54 54 International standards for IC susceptibility measurement methods IEC (BCI, 1 GHz) IEC (DPI : 1 GHz) IEC (TEM - GTEM : 1 / 18GHz) IEC (IC-Stripline, 3/6 GHz) IEC (WBFC, 1 GHz) IEC (LIHA, 10GHz) IEC (Near-field scan, 1/5 GHz) IEC (Mode stirred chamber, 1 GHz) Conducted methods Radiated methods TEM cell improvement Investigation method EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

55 55 Victim circuit Electronic equipment Cables PCB Radiated disturbances Induced conducted disturbances Vs Zs Zc, TdZLZL Equivalent Thevenin generator of RF disturbances Cables, PCB lines Input impedance of victim circuit Conducted immunity Applying conducted disturbances directly to IC pin ? 55 EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

56 56 Conducted immunity - IEC – Direct Power Injection (DPI) DPI Capacitor ( 1 – 10 nF) Decoupling network Chip under test Pforw Prefl Directional coupler Signal Synthesizer Amplifier Failure detection Oscilloscope Acquisition card Susceptibility threshold > 400 Ω Test on 1 pin Individual test of each sensitive IC pin. EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

57 57 Conducted immunity - IEC – Direct Power Injection (DPI) Forward power limit Example : DPI test on the power supply of an RF device  Simple, repeatable, low power measurement  IC prequalification test EMC measurement for integrated circuits May 15

58 58 Conducted immunity - IEC – Direct Power Injection (DPI) EMC measurement for integrated circuits ClassFwd Power (dBm - RMS) Voltage (V) (across 50 Ω) I/O type – protection level Low filtering, pin connected to long cable harness (power circuit) 220 – 273 – 7Short connections, low filtering (signal conditioning, communication line driver) No direct connection with the environment May 15

59 59 Case study – Starcore EMC testing The Starcore is 16-bit micro-controller used in automotive industry: 16 bit MPU with 16 MHz external quartz, on-chip PLL providing internal 133 MHz operating clock 128 Kb RAM, 3 general purpose ports (A, B, C, 8 bits), 4 analog inputs 12 bits, CAN interface Prepare an EMC test plan: conducted emission (1 /150 Ω) and susceptibility test (DPI) EMC measurement for integrated circuits SIGNALDescription VDDPositive supply VSSLogic Ground VDD_OSCOscillator supply VSS_OSCOscillator ground PA[0..7]Data port A (programmable drive) PB[0..7]Data port B (programmable drive) PC[0..7]Data port C (programmable drive) external 66MHz data/address ADC In[0..3]4 analog inputs (12 bit resolution) CAN TxCAN interface (high power, 1MHz) CAN RxCAN interface (high power, 1MHz) XTL_1, XTL_2Quartz oscillator 16MHz CAPAPLL external capacitance RESETReset microcontroller May 15


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