Languages of Australia English Indigenous languages ▫Australian Aborignal languages ▫Tasmanina languages ▫Torres Strait languages Pidgins and creoles ▫Kriol, Torres Strait creoles Other minority languages ▫Chinese, Italian, Vietnamese, Greek etc
Australian English G’day = Australian greeting Goodonya = “Good on you”, used to congratulate someone She’ll be right, mate. = Used to reassure someone Bloody = Adjective used before almost anything and everything Arvo = Afternoon Similar to British English. But, much more nassal and less clipped than the BE accent
Migration of Australia Original Inhabitants Colonization and Settlement by Britain Gold Rush Era White Australia Policy
Original Inhabitants Indigenous Australians = Aborigines ☞ first human inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby ☞ includes both Torres Strait Islanders and the Aboriginal people ☞ arrived between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago Torres Strait Isalnd Aboriginal Languages ☞ Pama-Nyungan group / non-Pama-Nyungan group ☞ Grammars may differ, but still show many similarities (phonetic) ☞ assumes that it have evolved from a single ancestor language and belong to the same linguistic family
1788, establishment of the penal colony Followed by voluntary immigrants Irish immigrants Forced Aborigines off their lands Colonization and Settlement by Britain Language - English ☞ Strong cockney(slang used by the Londoners) - the vowel system ☞ Irish English - pronunciation and non-standard plural(ex. youse)
1851, The discovery of gold 2% of the population of Britain and Ireland emigrated Continental Europeans, North Americans, Chinese Gold Rush Era : arrival of other Europeans and Chinese Language ☞ European English + American English + English as a second language
‘Gold era’ and ‘Growth of sugar industry’ 1901, Immigration policy, White Australia Policy ☞ excluding all non-white people & promoting European immigration Dictation test in a European language Target – Chinese, Pacific Islanders and Japanese White Australia Policy Language ☞ could have less variety of languages in the continent White Australia Policy
Aspects Classification of Australian English Major Languages vs. Minor Languages Between Englishes
Classification of AuE Cultivated Australian English General Australian English Broad Australian English
General Australian English Hugh Jackman Classification of AuE Cultivated Australian English Nicole KidmanGeoffrey Rush
2 Major Languages vs. Minor Languages 234 31 No mother tongue speaker EXTINCT Living Languages 267 Languages in Australia Indigenous Languages Source Source: Australian Government, http://www.environment.gov.au/index.htmlhttp://www.environment.gov.au/index.html
Creole and Aboriginal languages: Kriol = Spoken by about 30.000 people Torres Strait Language = Spoken by approximately 25.000 people Aboriginal English = Spoken in remote areas Western Australia and Northern Territory Major Languages vs. Minor Languages
Surrounded by metropolitan language (English) Considered as worthless object associated with “shame” and “embarrassment” Dismissed as “Bad English” Major Languages vs. Minor Languages
“Aboriginal cultural heritage is about language, stories and traditions as well as land and objects.” –Gavin Jennings, Minister for Aboriginal Affairs- The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation (1993), addressed the key issues for Reconciliation includes a section on Indigenous languages, titled 'Keeping it alive‘ The Department of Employment, Education and Training (1995) produced a booklet that was provided to schools around the country specifically to raise awareness of the nature of Australian Indigenous languages. The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (1991), Recommendation 55 of which deals with the importance of Indigenous languages. Major Languages vs. Minor Languages
- Diverged from “British English” - The “Americanization" - Formal style of AusE comes closer - Availability and importation of mass to BrE than AmE media content written in US English; books and magazines, television programs, computer software Between Englishes
Australians have their own styles and characters in using the language, vocabulary, pronunciation and accent. They have their own special words and phrases called strine “strine” The Australians words = Either made up by themselves or borrowed from Aborigine words or from slang used by early settlers
Between Englishes United States of America The United States (US) is Australia’s ninth largest source market, with approximately 12,045 full-fee paying students studying in Australia in 2006.
Between Englishes United Kingdom The United Kingdom is one of Australia’s major competitors in international education as well as Australia’s second largest education market in Europe. The United Kingdom is one of Australia’s major competitors in international education as well as Australia’s second largest education market in Europe.
Between Englishes International Student Enrolments in Higher Education in 2006 in Higher Education in 2006 During 2006, higher education enrolments in Australia grew by 5.2%.
1)Australian Migration Act Migration Act 1958 first established in 1985 changing → Australian economics, the rest of the world’s economics, and its society. The policy → to allow immigrants
“ Only those who become accustom to Australian custom, value and language will be allowed to become citizens in Australia. ” ※ When obtaining the citizenship: → ① extended the waiting period 2 to 4 years, ② pass hard English Test, and History Test.
2)IELTS International English Language Testing System (IELTS) A test of English language proficiencyEnglish language Managed by University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations, British Council and IDP Education AustraliaUniversity of CambridgeESOLBritish CouncilIDP Education Australia Choose either the Academic Module or the General Training Module IELTS is accepted by most Australian, British, Canadian, Irish, New Zealand and South African academic institutions A requirement for migration to Australia and Canada.
IELTS characteristics A variety of accents and writing styles - in order to minimise linguistic bias IELTS : more authoritative than TOEFL by some people and organizations (especially the ones outside the United States) Although the TOEFL incorporates British and Australian listening exercisesUnited States IELTS tests the ability to speak, read, listen and write in English Two test formats can be chosen from - Academic and General Training Band scores are used for each language sub-skill (Speaking, Listening, Reading and Writing) The Band Scale ranges from 1 ("Non User") to 9 ("Expert User“)
3) Education TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) - measures the ability of non-native English-speaking examinees to use EnglishEnglish ※ Renewal The Listening Section → hires not only North American English speakers but also British, Australian and New Zealand English speakers. BritishAustralianNew Zealand (The ratio is 25% each for American, Canadian, British and Aussie-Kiwi pronunciation. )
Students Abroad International Student Enrolments in Australia 1994 – 2006
Students Abroad 6,600 3,300 3,000 700600 Total 14,000 (Resource: 2004 년도 주한호주대사관 교육부 통계 )
Result Since language is one of the ways we find reality, all these activities determine for us much of the shape of existence. The Macquarie Dictionary must tell us what words mean now, whether we like it or not. And a dictionary of Australian English must tell us what words mean now, in Australia. A dictionary’s job is to record that series of choices so that, if we use a dictionary, we can understand ourselves, and each other, and some of what it means to be Australian. Prof. Donald Horne
References Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page High Beam Encyclopedia - http://www.encyclopedia.com http://www.encyclopedia.com Answers.com - http://www.anwers.com http://www.anwers.com Google – http://www.google.comhttp://www.google.com Yahoo – http://www.yahoo.comhttp://www.yahoo.com Naver – http://www.naver.comhttp://www.naver.com Australian Government - Australian Education International http://aei.dest.gov.au/AEI/default.htm
References ABC radio - http://www.abc.net.au/streaminghttp://www.abc.net.au/streaming Ezinarticles - http://ezinearticles.comhttp://ezinearticles.com The Black Commentator – http://www.blackcommentator.comhttp://www.blackcommentator.com Humanities and social studies Academic group – White Australia Policy http://www.hsse.nie.edu.sg/staff/blackburn/WhiteAustraliapolicy.htm