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UNIT: Matter Objectives: Lesson 4 of 4 You will review the structure of the atom You will learn the difference between the Atomic Number and Mass Number.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT: Matter Objectives: Lesson 4 of 4 You will review the structure of the atom You will learn the difference between the Atomic Number and Mass Number."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT: Matter Objectives: Lesson 4 of 4 You will review the structure of the atom You will learn the difference between the Atomic Number and Mass Number for an element You will learn what an isotope is You will learn what an ion is and how they form You will learn the difference between a cation and anion TOPIC: Atoms, Isotopes and Ions

2 Quickwrite In 1-2 sentences answer one of the questions below: Review: What components do you think make up an atom??? What is in the nucleus of an atom? How big is the nucleus of an atom when compared to the entire atom?

3 Atoms All matter is made of tiny particles called Atoms An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element Atoms are composed of a dense center region called a nucleus The nucleus is made up of positive particles called protons and neutral particles called neutrons Atoms are also made up of an outer electron “cloud” where negatively charged particles known as electrons can be found Nucleus Protons Electrons Neutrons

4 Imagine an atom is the size of a baseball stadium On this scale, the nucleus would be about the size of a pea on the pitcher’s mound The electron “cloud” and electrons that surround the nucleus would occupy the size of the stadium The electron cloud is essentially an unoccupied region of space, so an atom is really just empty space Actual Size of the Nucleus

5 What is an Atom? Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element It is made up of: – An incredibly small, dense center called a nucleus – The nucleus is made up of positively charged particles called protons and neutral particles called neutrons – A region of empty space known as the electron “cloud” where negatively charged particles called electrons can be found Nucleus Protons Electrons Neutrons

6 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) What if we could weigh or mass a proton on a scale? How much do you think it would it weigh? The actual mass of a proton is 1.66 x grams 1.6 x gms + It turns out that a neutron has about the same mass: 1.66 x grams That’s an incredibly small number to work with A more convenient unit to measure the mass of a proton or neutron is the Atomic Mass Unit or AMU 1 AMU = 1.66 x grams and is defined as 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom 1.6 x gms A carbon-12 atom has 6 protons & 6 neutrons, so 1 AMU is basically the mass of 1 proton or neutron Electrons are so light that you can usually ignore their mass relative to the atom as a whole Remember, all the mass or weight in an atom is in the nucleus A proton has about 2000 times the mass of an electron

7 What is an Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)? 1 AMU = 1.66 x grams and is defined as 1/12 the mass of carbon-12 atom 1 AMU is the mass or weight of a proton or neutron

8 Atomic Number and Mass Number Atomic number is the number of protons each element has For example, Carbon here has six protons The numbers of protons determines the identity of the element The periodic table is listed in order of increasing atomic number For example, Hydrogen, the lightest element has 1 proton Helium, the next heaviest element has 2 protons Lithium has 3 protons……

9 Atomic Symbol, Atomic Number and Mass Number Recall that every element on the periodic table is represented by an atomic symbol The atomic symbol is a one or two letter symbol used to represent every element on the periodic table The atomic symbol for Carbon is represented by a capital C Every Element can also be represented by a mass number and atomic number The atomic number is the number of protons in the element Remember, it is the amount of protons that determine the element Carbon always has 6 protons, so the atomic number is 6 or 6 AMU The mass number is equal to the number of protons plus neutrons For carbon, it is 6 protons plus 6 neutrons, which is equal to 12 or 12 AMU 6 C 12 Atomic Symbol Mass Number Atomic Number

10 - - Atomic Symbol, Atomic Number and Mass Number 2 He 4 Atomic Symbol Mass Number Atomic Number Here is a Helium Atom The atomic symbol for Helium is represented by He Notice, the nucleus contains two protons, therefore it’s atomic number is 2 or 2 AMU You may have also noticed that Helium nucleus has 2 two neutrons Remember, the mass number is equal to the number of protons plus neutrons therefore it’s mass number is equal to 4 or 4 AMU SymbolNameNumber of Protons Atomic Number Number of Neutrons Mass Number Helium

11 What is the difference between the Atomic Symbol, Atomic Number and Mass Number? The atomic symbol is a one or two letter symbol used to represent every element on the periodic table The mass number is equal to the number of protons plus neutrons The atomic number is the number of protons in the element Please draw:

12 - - Isotopes 2 He 4 Atomic Symbol Mass Number Atomic Number Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Symbol Name Number of Protons Atomic NumberNumber of Neutrons Mass Number Helium What would happen if we added another neutron to the nucleus? How does the mass number change if added another neutron? Let’s find out and add another neutron Notice, the number of protons and the atomic number did not change, However, because we added a neutron the mass number increased from 4 to 5 Remember, the number of protons determines the atom or element Lets take a look at our helium atom again Recall that helium has two neutrons and two protons in its nucleus giving it an atomic number of 2 and a mass number of 4 Helium What would happen if we added another neutron to the nucleus? How does the mass number change if added another neutron? Let’s find out and add another neutron Notice, the number of protons and the atomic number did not change, Once again, because we added a neutron the mass number increased from 5 to Helium

13 Isotopes 6 C 12 Atomic Symbol Mass Number Atomic Number Here we have a Carbon-12 atom with six protons and six neutrons Carbon-12 is not an isotope because we have an equal amount of protons and neutrons One of the most common isotopes scientists work with is the Carbon-14 isotope To make a Carbon-14 isotope, we need to add two neutrons to Carbon-12 seen here So, let’s add two neutrons to Carbon-12 Notice, the number of protons and atomic number did not change, but, because we gained two neutrons, the mass number went from 12 to 14 SymbolNameNumber of Protons Atomic Number Number of Neutrons Mass Number Isotope Yes or No? Carbon NO YES Carbon

14 What is an Isotope? Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons Example: Carbon-14 ( ) and Helium-6 ( )

15 Ions 6 Na 12 Atomic Symbol Mass Number Atomic Number A ion is an atom(s) that has lost or gained one or more electrons giving it an overall charge For example, here we have a neutral Sodium atom A neutral sodium atom has 11 protons and 11 electrons going around the nucleus What makes it neutral? Remember, protons have a +1 charge and electrons have -1 charge The fact that it has an equal amount of protons and electrons gives it a charge of zero Or we can do the math and see that = 0 But sodium is an atom that is known for losing an electron protons (+11 Charge) 11 electrons (-11 Charge) Sodium Atom Neutral (+0 charge)

16 Ions 6 Na 12 Atomic Symbol Mass Number Atomic Number If an ion is an atom(s) that has lost or gained one or more electrons giving it an overall charge, What do you think would happen if sodium here lost an electron? What kind of charge will the sodium have on it after it loses an electron? Let’s find out and remove the outer electron Notice, there are still 11 protons in the nucleus, but now there are 10 electrons Because it has an additional proton, the sodium atom now has a +1 charge, forming a +1 Ion Once we could do the math to verify this: = protons (+11 Charge) 10 electrons (-10 Charge) Sodium Atom +1

17 What is an Ion? An atom(s) that has lost or gained one or more electrons giving it an overall charge Example: sodium ion (Na +1 )

18 Cations versus Anions A cation is a positive ion because it has lost one or more electrons For example, here we have a neutral Magnesium atom A neutral Magnesium atom has 12 protons and 12 electrons going around the nucleus What kind of Ion will form if Magnesium here lost 2 electrons? Let’s find out and remove the outer 2 electrons Because it has two additional protons, the Magnesium atom now has a +2 charge, forming a +2 Cation Once again we could do the math to verify this: = +2 Metals (such as Magnesium) typically lose electrons to become cations protons (+12 Charge) 12 electrons (-12 Charge) electrons (-10 Charge) Magnesium Atom

19 Cations versus Anions A anion is a negative ion because it has gained one or more electrons For example, here we have a neutral Fluorine atom A neutral Fluorine atom has 9 protons and 9 electrons going around the nucleus What kind of Ion will form if Fluorine here gained 1 electron? Let’s find out and ADD 1 electron Because it has one additional electron, the Fluorine atom now has a -1 charge, forming a -1 anion Once we could do the math to verify this: = -1 Nonmetals (such as Fluorine) typically gain electrons to become anions When an atom becomes an anion, we change the ending and add -ide protons (+9 Charge) 9 electrons (+9 Charge) Fluorine Atom 10 electrons (-10 Charge) -

20 What is the difference between a Cation and an Anion? A cation is a positive ion formed when an atom loses one or more electrons Metals typically lose electrons to become cations Example: Sodium (Na 1+ ) & Magnesium (Mg 2+ ) cation A anion is a negative ion formed when an atom gains one or more electrons Nonmetals typically gain electrons to become anions Example: Fluoride (F 1- ) & Sulfide (S 2- ) anion

21 SymbolNameNumber of Protons Atomic Number Number of Neutrons Mass Number Isotope Yes or No? Number of Electrons Charge Carbon NO Practice: Complete the table below Answer: -Because there are 6 protons, the atomic number must be 6 as well. -The mass number is equal to the amount of protons + neutrons, so the mass number must be 12 -Because the amount of the protons is the same as the amount of neutrons, the atom is NOT an isotope -Because the charge is zero, their must be an equal amount of protons and electrons, so in this case, because there are 6 protons, so, their must be 6 electrons -Since we know the mass number and atomic number, we can write the symbol

22 SymbolNameNumber of Protons Atomic Number Number of Neutrons Mass Number Isotope Yes or No? Number of Electrons Charge Hydrogen YES Practice: Complete the table below Answer: -Because the atomic number is 1, the amount of protons must be 1 as well -The mass number is equal to the amount of protons + neutrons, so, = 3, therefore the mass number is 3 -Because there are more neutrons than protons, the atom IS an isotope -Because we have no electrons and 1 proton, this give the atom a +1 charge -Since we know the mass number and atomic number, we can write the symbol (this particular isotope of hydrogen is called tritium and is highly radioactive) 1 H 3

23 Summarize: (you can always write you own) What is an atom made up of? Where is the mass of an atom located? What part of the atom is made up of “empty space” Explain why it is more convenient to work with AMU’s (Atomic Mass Unit’s) versus grams: (In other words, which number would you rather work with, 1 AMU or 1.66 x grams?) Compare and contrast the atomic number with the mass number, what's the difference? What are isotopes? How do isotopes affect the mass number of an atom? How do atoms become cations and anions?


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