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History of Sheffield Lane Top

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1 History of Sheffield Lane Top
Sheffield Archives and Local Studies: History Key Stage 2 Unit 7 (Local History Study – How the local area has changed over time) History of Sheffield Lane Top Looking at these kind of pictures, what do you think the area might have looked like say 100 years ago or more?

2 Population of Sheffield over the centuries…
1086 1600 3,000 1801 60,095 1851 161,475 552,700 1901 451,195 2011 552,700

3 Sheffield Lane Top Historically part of the parish of Ecclesfield.
People rented land from the Lord of the Manor (at first the Earls of Shrewsbury and later the Dukes of Norfolk). The population was very small throughout Victorian times. Lane Top was a tiny hamlet, surrounded by fields, farmland and countryside. In the 1841 census, the most common jobs in Lane Top area were farmers, agricultural workers and fork makers. Historically Sheffield Lane Top was part of the parish of Ecclesfield. People rented land from the Lord of the Manor (at first the Earls of Shrewsbury and later the Dukes of Norfolk). So in the 1600s you would have rented the land here from this man – Thomas Howard, the Earl of Arundel and Duke of Norfolk. The population was very small throughout Victorian times. Lane Top was just a tiny hamlet, surrounded by fields, farmland and countryside. In the 1841 census, the most common jobs in Lane Top area were farmers, agricultural workers and fork makers. Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel and Duke of Norfolk ( ) (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s22507)

4 Satellite view of Sheffield Lane Top today (http://maps.google.co.uk/)
This is a modern day satellite view of Sheffield Lane Top. Note amount of houses and buildings. Point out location of school.

5 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/12)
Map of Sheffield Lane Top, 1890 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/12) Back in 1890 Sheffield Lane Top looked like this. Note open fields (in contrast to previous slide!) Is there a school at Lane Top in 1890? Note Cliffe House, Hatfield House, Pheasant Inn, Paddock Farm – we’ll be looking at who used to live in these old buildings even back in Victorian times. Point out old corn mill.

6 The Pheasant Inn at Lane Top can be traced back to c. 1840s.
It still stands today. Pheasant Inn, Sheffield Lane Top (above looking towards Shiregreen, early 1900s; right, 1932) (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: V00708 and s13346) The Pheasant Inn at Lane Top can be traced back to c. 1840s. It still stands today. How were people travelling around Sheffield Lane Top over 100 years ago? [Point out horse and cart].

7 1881 Census showing Sheffield Lane Top, Pheasant Inn etc.
Explain this is the 1881 census showing people who lived in the Lane Top area at the time. Who was the inn-keeper at the Pheasant Inn in 1881? [Charles Ashton] Note jobs of other people living at Lane Top at the time: ‘agricultural labourers’ (ag lab), ‘groom’ [what would he have done?], ‘stone mason’, ‘fork maker’, etc. Point out how rural jobs like farmers, grooms available in this area, also fork manufacturing. 1881 Census showing Sheffield Lane Top, Pheasant Inn etc. (www.ancestry.com)

8 Hatfield House Farm, Hatfield
House Lane (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s06386) Hatfield House was actually a small cluster of farm houses in Hatfield House Lane back in Victorian times. Who lived there back in 1881? Hatfield House shown here (and on the map we looked at before) was actually a small cluster of farm houses in Hatfield House Lane back in Victorian times. But who lived there back in 1881?

9 1881 Census showing Sheffield Lane Top, Hatfield House, etc.
(www.ancestry.com) Who lived at Hatfield House? (Note: Spelling “Hadfield” House here!). Point out “Benjamin Challoner” a “fork maker and farmer” and “Charles Greave” a “farmer” living next-door. Point out “fork manufacturer”, “stud groom”, “ag[ricultural] la[bourer]”, 15-year old “farm servant”.

10 1881 Census showing Sheffield Lane Top, Hadfield House, etc.
Point out people working as “steel fork grinders”, “groom”, “blacksmiths”, etc. 1881 Census showing Sheffield Lane Top, Hadfield House, etc. (www.ancestry.com)

11 What was the name of the farmer living at Paddock Farm in 1935?
Paddock Farm, Elm Lane (showing horse “the King’s Messenger”), c. 1910 (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: u00511) Sheffield Street Directory (showing Elm Lane), 1935 (Sheffield Archives: Searchroom Library) Point out picture of “Paddock Farm” which featured on old 1890 map of Lane Top. Farming was a key occupation at Sheffield Lane Top 100 years ago and beyond. Look at this page from a Sheffield Street Directory of 1935 which shows people living on certain streets. What was the name of the farmer living at Paddock Farm in 1935? What was the name of the farmer living at Paddock Farm in 1935?

12 Grand Country Houses in the area
There were several large country houses in the area. Cliffe House, Elm Lane, was built in 1805. Who lived there in the 1880s? There were several large very grand country houses in the area. One of these was Cliffe House, on Elm Lane, built in 1805. But who lived there back in the 1880s? Cliffe House, Elm Lane (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s05981)

13 1881 Census Showing Cliffe House, Elm Lane (www.ancestry.com)
Point out 1881 census record showing those living at Cliffe House. Who else lived in the house (other than the Smith Family)? Point out: “governess” (paid to educate the children privately and lived with the family); “nurse”, “housemaid”, “parlour maid”, “kitchen maid”. What does this tell you about the family? Note occupations of neighbours: “farm labourer”, “coachman” and “groom”. Farming and work involving horses was common around Lane Top then! 1881 Census Showing Cliffe House, Elm Lane (www.ancestry.com)

14 By 1934, Cliffe House was no longer a private home.
Sheffield Street Directory (showing Elm Lane), 1935 (Sheffield Archives: Searchroom Library) By 1934, Cliffe House was no longer a private home. Can you find out from the street directory what it was used for? In 1938 a Fire Station was built on its grounds. The house was demolished c. late 1950s to make way for a new fire station. By 1934, Cliffe House was no longer a private home. Can you find out from the street directory what it was used for? [“Institution for Mental Defectives”]. In 1938 a Fire Station was built on its grounds. The house was demolished c. late 1950s to make way for site of new fire station, which stands there today. Cliffe House, Elm Lane (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s25119)

15 Norwood Hall was built c. 1713.
Norwood Hall and Grounds, Piper Lane/Longley Lane (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s05689) Norwood Hall was built c Between 1775 and 1915 it became the home of the Wheat family. What did the Wheat Family do for a living? Sheffield Street Directory (showing Piper Lane), 1906 (Sheffield Archives: Searchroom Library) Another grand country house in the area was Norwood Hall, built c Between 1775 and 1915 it became the home of the Wheat family. What did the Wheat Family do for a living? [See street directory].

16 Between 1918 and 1959 Norwood Hall became known as “Bishopsholme”.
Norwood Hall and Grounds (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s05690) Between 1918 and 1959 Norwood Hall became known as “Bishopsholme”. Who do you think lived there? Sheffield City Council then used it as a care hostel (for people with disabilities). Norwood Hall was demolished in 1976. Sheffield Street Directory (showing part of Herries Road), 1935 (Sheffield Archives: Searchroom Library) Between 1918 and 1959 Norwood Hall became known as “Bishopsholme”. Who do you think lived there? The clue is in the title! Then check street directory for his name. Sheffield City Council then used it as a care hostel (for people with disabilities). Norwood Hall was demolished in 1976.

17 In the 1990s the house became Norwood Grange Residential Care Home.
Norwood Grange, Longley Lane, was built in 1850s for Thomas Fisher, a partner in the Britannia metal manufacturing company of Shaw and Fisher. Norwood Grange was bought by Sheffield City Council just before the Second World War. During the war it was used as a base for the Fire Service and Air Raid Wardens. In the 1990s the house became Norwood Grange Residential Care Home. Moving next-door to Norwood Hall was Norwood Grange…built in 1850s for Thomas Fisher, a partner in the Britannia metal manufacturing company of Shaw and Fisher. Point out advert for Shaw and Fisher – well known metal manufacturers at the time “best britannia metal dish covers”… Norwood Grange was bought by Sheffield City Council just before the Second World War. During the war it was used as a base for the Fire Service and Air Raid Wardens. In the 1990s the house became Norwood Grange Residential Care Home, which still stands today (as pictured). Trade advert for Shaw and Fisher, Manufacturers of Britannia Metal (from Sheffield Directory), 1852 (Sheffield Archives: Searchroom Library)

18 Norwood Grange Sale Catalogues (following death of Henry Fisher),
(Sheffield Archives: TC2094) What was Norwood Grange like inside? This sale catalogue, which details sale of contents of the house following the death of the owner Henry Fisher, dated gives us an idea. What does is tell you about the house and its owner?

19 Sheffield Street Directory (showing Shiregreen), 1906
Most people in the area, wouldn’t have had such luxuries. Look at this street directory showing people living at Shiregreen. Note jobs in area: various employed in metal/cutlery industry “fork manufacturers”, “iron dressers”, “silversmith”. What did Charles Greaves do? Where did he live? What about Herbert Barker? Mrs Wilfred Parker? Sheffield Street Directory (showing Shiregreen), 1906 (Sheffield Archives: Searchroom Library)

20 In 1920 the building became Firth Park Grammar School.
The Brushes, Barnsley Road, Firth Park (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s05886) The Brushes was built in 1790 by John Booth, who made his wealth through iron and steel. Brushes Farm had stood on the site back in the 1640s and its owner, Captain Burley, was executed in 1646 for supporting the King against Parliament in the English Civil War. In 1920 the building became Firth Park Grammar School. It was demolished in and Longley Park Sixth Form College now stands in its place. Another fine house in the area was the Brushes, Barnsley Road. The Brushes was built in 1790 by John Booth, who made his wealth through iron and steel. Brushes Farm had stood on the site back in the 1640s and its owner, Captain Burley, was executed in 1646 for supporting the King against Parliament in the English Civil War. In 1920 the building became Firth Park Grammar School. It was demolished in and Longley Park Sixth Form College now stands in its place.

21 Crowder House, Barnsley Road, Longley, was home of the Wilkinson Family from c until 1859 when solicitor Bernard Wake purchased it. It was demolished in 1937 and modern housing now stands in its place (on what is now Crowland Road). The house had large grounds, some of which became part of Longley Park. Crowder House, Longley (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: u00471 and s05876) This is another big old house in the neighbourhood - Crowder House, Barnsley Road, Longley, home of the Wilkinson Family from c until 1859 when solicitor Bernard Wake purchased it. It was demolished in 1937 and modern housing now stands in its place (on what is now Crowland Road). The house had large grounds, some of which became part of Longley Park.

22 Longley Hall was built c. 1780 for the lawyer Kenyon Parker.
Its lands were later bought for the Workhouse. The building still stands, owned by a private landlord and run as a care home. Moving onto another big house - Longley Hall, built c for the lawyer Kenyon Parker. Its lands were later bought for the Workhouse. The building still stands, owned by a private landlord and run as a care home. Longley Hall, Longley Lane, 1958 (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: y02136 )

23 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/12)
Map of Sheffield Lane Top, 1905 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/12) This 1905 map of Lane Top still shows area full of fields, not many buildings. Paddock Farm, Pheasant Inn, Cliffe House, Hatfield House all still standing. Is there any sign of a school at Lane Top by 1905? Look closely…[not on the map but “Catholic Schools” have been added in pencil by someone]

24 This marked the end of rural life for the area.
Shiregreen housing estate under construction, c. 1920s (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s12372 ) In the 1920s and 1930s, as Sheffield grew rapidly, the area came within the boundary of Sheffield and was used as site for Council housing. This marked the end of rural life for the area. In the 1920s and 1930s, as Sheffield grew rapidly, the area came within the boundary of Sheffield and was used as site for Council housing. E.g. Shiregreen Estate, 1920s; Longley Housing Estate 1920s/1930s; fields and countryside built on. This marked the end of rural life for the area. Longley housing estate, c. 1930 (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s12368 )

25 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/12)
Map of Sheffield Lane Top, 1934 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/12) So by 1934 Lane Top looked like this… Point out number of houses. Contrast with earlier map of open fields.

26 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/16)
Map of Fir Vale area, 1905 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/16) Going back to 1905 and moving a little further South down Barnsley Road… Point out Norwood Hall, Norwood Grange, etc. (we looked at earlier). What’s the largest building marked on this particular map? What was the Workhouse used for?

27 Sheffield Union Workhouse
The poor in Sheffield, 1870 (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s03008) In Victorian times, poor people needing help had to go into the Union Workhouse. The Sheffield Union Workhouse used to be based in an old cotton mill on Kelham Street, Sheffield (housed up to 600 inmates). With the Workhouse becoming increasingly overcrowded, in 1881 a new workhouse was built at Fir Vale (housed up to 1,662 inmates). In Victorian times, poor people needing help had to go into the Union Workhouse. The Sheffield Union Workhouse used to be based in an old cotton mill on Kelham Street, Sheffield (housed up to 600 inmates). With the Workhouse becoming increasingly overcrowded, in 1881 a new workhouse was built at Fir Vale (housed up to 1,662 inmates).

28 Why was the workhouse built at Fir Vale?
Sheffield Daily Telegraph Newspaper, Wed 5 May 1880 (Sheffield Local Studies Library: Newspaper Collection) Why choose to build a new workhouse at Fir Vale? Point out positive descriptions of the site around Fir Vale: “nicely-wooded and breezy district of Fir Vale, Pitsmoor”, “site…is most romantic and pleasing”, “villas of pleasing architecture”, “specimens of Flora’s many beauties”, “picturesque loveliness”, “wild and delightful beauty”. Sheffield Union Workhouse, Fir Vale, 1900 (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: y02028)

29 What was it like in the Workhouse?
Conditions inside were very harsh. Families were split up and housed in different parts of the workhouse. Strict rules to follow. Inmates were made to work hard doing manual labour such as breaking up stones. Sheffield Union Workhouse, Fir Vale, 1900 (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: s00405) So…it was very pleasant in the area around the new workhouse but what was it like inside...? Conditions inside were very harsh. Families were split up and housed in different parts of the workhouse. Strict rules to follow. Inmates were made to work hard doing manual labour such as breaking up stones. “Dr Hunt, medical officer to the Workhouse, informed the Sheffield Guardians that the task of the stone breakers should be reduced or their rations increased.” Sheffield Local Register, 16 Sep 1896 (Sheffield Local Studies Library: S)

30 Sheffield Evening Telegraph Newspaper, Wed 6 Jul 1887 (Sheffield Local Studies Library: Newspaper Collection) According to the newspaper headline about a court case at Sheffield Town Hall, what were two pauper inmates at the workhouse accused of? According to the newspaper headline about a court case at Sheffield Town Hall, what were two pauper inmates at the workhouse accused of? Draw attention to headline “Lazy Paupers at Fir Vale Workhouse”. William Elam and Thomas Allen, the two inmates “charged with refusing to complete their allotted task of work”. Accused of not breaking up enough stone. Elam claimed it was “impossible” to break up the amount asked of him and said “he was not an able bodied man”. The Board of Guardians claimed the prisoners were “idle vagabonds”. Men were found guilty and sentenced to imprisonment with hard labour.

31 Sheffield Union Workhouse Punishment book entries, 1909
(Sheffield Archives: CA510/1) This workhouse punishment register relates to punishments for when the paupers were allowed out (usually on a Sunday to attend church) and came back late or came back drunk etc. Punishments include the following: ‘cautioned’, being sent to the sinister sounding “D Block”, or the even more sinister “Test R[oo]m”, “1 meal bread and water”.

32 Sheffield Union: Scattered Homes
In Sheffield, it was eventually decided that poor children should not be made to go into the workhouse. In 1893, the “scattered homes” system was used where, rather than going into the workhouse, poor children were placed in foster homes ‘scattered’ across Sheffield. The central headquarters home was at Smilter Lane (now Herries Road). “My visit [to The Scattered Homes] showed evidence of what a sympathetic system and humane instincts could accomplish – a shining contrast to the poor little tired, deserted ones who drag out a melancholy existence in the great workhouses of our land.” In Sheffield, it was eventually decided that poor children should not be made to go into the workhouse. In 1893, the “scattered homes” system was used where, rather than going into the workhouse, poor children were placed in foster homes ‘scattered’ across Sheffield. The central headquarters home was at Smilter Lane (now Herries Road). Point out how many visitors praised Sheffield’s system of scattered children’s homes. Children of the State: Sheffield’s Successful Experiment, 1898 (Sheffield Local Studies Library: 339.1S)

33 “A typical family’ in Sheffield Union Scattered Homes’ for
What was name of the foster mother in charge at Sheffield Children’s Homes, headquarters on Herrie Road? Sheffield Street Directory (showing part of Herries Road), 1935 (Sheffield Archives: Searchroom Library) Look at this street directory list. What was name of the foster mother in charge at Sheffield Children’s Homes, headquarters on Herries Road? Point out picture of foster mother with lots of children to look after! “A typical family’ in Sheffield Union Scattered Homes’ for poor children (149 and 151 Upperthorpe), 1890s (Sheffield Local Studies Library Picture Sheffield: y01176)

34 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/16)
Map of Fir Vale area, 1934 (Sheffield Archives: OS Map 288/16) Moving forwards in time again to 1934… Point out building of lots more houses in Fir Vale by 1934. At this point in time, what has the Sheffield Union Workhouse become? City General Hospital [now Northern General Hospital]. Find the headquarters of the Sheffield Children’s Homes.

35 St Cecilia’s Church, Parson’s Cross, marriage register, 1939 - 1940
(Sheffield Archives: PR45/2/1) To cater for the growing community in the area, new shops, churches, etc. were built. One of the new churches to serve the area was this one – St Cecilia’s, for which we have a marriage register page on display. The marriage register shows new couples in the area getting married, starting families. Point out occupations, addresses of the couples, e.g. Ada Firth was a “spoon and fork buffer”, i.e. a “buffer girl”., whose job it was to polish silver cutlery.

36 But the Lane Top area withstood the attacks!
The new housing estates of the 1920s and 1930s soon faced a tough test. During the Second World War the area was hit by the Sheffield Blitz – when German enemy aircraft attacked the city. The worst bombing attacks happened in December 1940, killing over 700 people in Sheffield and destroying thousands of homes. But the Lane Top area withstood the attacks! Sheffield City Council: Emergency Planning Department Second World War bomb damage index card for Herries Road, (Sheffield Archives: X293/1/4) The new housing estates of the 1920s and 1930s soon faced a tough test. During the Second World War the area was hit by the Sheffield Blitz – when German enemy aircraft attacked the city. The worst bombing attacks happened in December 1940, killing over 700 people in Sheffield and destroying thousands of homes. But the Lane Top area withstood the attacks! Point out how this document shows reports of bombs falling in Herries Road (most of which were in December 1940 when the two most severe attacks happened).

37 Sheffield Civil Defence Department
Point out people who died as a result of bombs in the area, e.g. Daffodil Road, Heather Road, Pitsmoor Road. Sheffield Civil Defence Department list of people killed in the Sheffield Blitz, (Sheffield Archives: 2010/155)

38 Recap… What did people do for jobs back in the area 100 years ago or more? What about if you lived in one of the big grand Victorian houses? What happened to very poor people who couldn’t look after themselves? What tough test did the new housing estates of the 1920s and 1930s face soon after being built? What did people do for jobs back in the area 100 years ago or more? What about if you lived in one of the big grand Victorian houses? What happened to very poor people who couldn’t look after themselves? What tough test did the new housing estates of the 1920s and 1930s face soon after being built?

39 Sheffield Archives and Local Studies
If you would prefer to use this presentation as the basis for a class visit to Archives and Local Studies or in a visit by us to your class please contact us. Students will have the opportunity to see and touch the original items. We offer: Access to original primary source material from Tudor times through to the 21st century. Class visits to the Central Library and to Sheffield Archives. Visits to schools to deliver classroom sessions. Introductory sessions for teaching staff. Online PowerPoint lesson resources. Focus Packs of colour facsimiles linked to the National Curriculum.


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