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SKILLS Project Naming and Building Ionics (I). What are ionic compounds? Remember, this unit only applies to the naming and construction of ionic compounds.

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Presentation on theme: "SKILLS Project Naming and Building Ionics (I). What are ionic compounds? Remember, this unit only applies to the naming and construction of ionic compounds."— Presentation transcript:

1 SKILLS Project Naming and Building Ionics (I)

2 What are ionic compounds? Remember, this unit only applies to the naming and construction of ionic compounds. Ionic compounds are almost always made of a METAL and a NON-METAL. Remember, you can determine whether something is a metal or non-metal based on their position on the periodic table.

3 Naming Ionic Compounds Ionic nomenclature is fairly simple and follows the following steps: –The positive ion or ions are always named first (typically a metal or metals.) –The anion is named second, but drops its suffix and typically ends in –ide. –Polyatomics (larger ions with specific names) do not undergo a change to their names when used in compounds. Refer to the next slide for a complete list of useful polyatomics and associated charges.

4 Polyatomic Ions NO Nitrate NO Nitrite SO Sulfate SO Sulfite PO Phosphate PO Phosphite OH 1- - Hydroxide CO Carbonate NH Ammonium C 2 H 3 O Acetate

5 CN 1- - Cyanide MnO Permanganate ClO Perchlorate ClO Chlorate ClO Chlorite C 2 O Oxalate IO Iodate BrO Bromate CrO Chromate Cr 2 O Dichromate O Peroxide N Azide AsO Arsenate S 2 O Thiosulfate

6 Sulfur Example 1: Li 2 S Lithium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Sulfide Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. Replace the last syllable of the anion with –ide. Remember, we don’t do this for polyatomic ions.

7 Oxide Oxygen Example 2: MgO Magnesium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. Replace the last syllable of the anion with –ide. Remember, we don’t do this for polyatomic ions.

8 Phosphorous Phosphide Example 3: Na 3 P Sodium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. Replace the last syllable of the anion with –ide. Remember, we don’t do this for polyatomic ions.

9 Carbon Carbide Example 4: Ca 2 C Calcium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. Replace the last syllable of the anion with –ide. Remember, we don’t do this for polyatomic ions.

10 Nitrogen Nitride Example 5: Ba 3 N 2 Barium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. Replace the last syllable of the anion with –ide. Remember, we don’t do this for polyatomic ions.

11 Sulfur Sulfide Example 6: (NH 4 ) 2 S Ammonium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. Replace the last syllable of the anion with –ide. Remember, we don’t do this for polyatomic ions. Note: Even though this compound is made up only of non-metals, the bond between the ammonium and sulfur is actually ionic due to the charges.

12 Carbonate Example 7: MgCO 3 Magnesium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. We don’t need to replace the ending of the polyatomic “carbonate” with –ide. Remember, we don’t need to change polyatomics when writing ionic names.

13 Hint: the challenge with working with polyatomics is recognizing them. As a rule, look for polyatomics when a compound contains 3 or more different elements. Acetate Example 8: NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 Ammonium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. We don’t need to replace the ending of the polyatomic “acetate” with –ide. Remember, we don’t need to change polyatomics when writing ionic names.

14 Dichromate Example 9: K 2 Cr 2 O 7 Potassium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. We don’t need to replace the ending of the polyatomic “dichromate” with –ide. Remember, we don’t need to change polyatomics when writing ionic names.

15 Perchlorate Example 10: CsClO 4 Cesium Name the metal or positive ion first. These are usually at the beginning of the compound as well. Name the non-metal or anion second. Typically, this will be at the end of the compound. We don’t need to replace the ending of the polyatomic “perchlorate” with –ide. Remember, we don’t need to change polyatomics when writing ionic names.

16 Practice on Your Own: 1.Na 3 PO BaCl NaI - 4.LiIO Sr(NO 3 ) NaH - 7.(NH 4 ) 2 Se - 8.MgSO CsCN - 10.H 3 AsO 4 - Sodium phosphate Barium chloride Sodium iodide Lithium iodate Strontium nitrate Sodium hydride Ammonium selenide Magnesium sulfate Cesium cyanide Hydrogen arsenate

17 Building Ionic Compounds To build your compound, you will need to do five things: –Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. –Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each element. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. –Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. –Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. –Simplify, if needed.

18 Ex. 11: Oxygen and Magnesium Mg O 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each element. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed. O Mg Both subscripts may be divided by 2 to simplify. 1 1 Note: We never write “1” as a subscript. The presence of the symbol indicates that at least one is present already. MgO Done! You’ve just built magnesium oxide.

19 Note: We never write “1” as a subscript. The presence of the symbol indicates that at least one is present already. Na Na 3 P Ex. 12: Sodium and Phosphorous P Na 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each element. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed. P The subscripts cannot be simplified any further (divided by a common number). Done! You’ve just built sodium phosphide.

20 Fe 2 S 3 S Ex. 13: Iron (III) and Sulfur S Fe 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each element. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed. Fe Neither subscript may be divided by a common factor. Done! You’ve just built Iron (III) sulfide

21 Note: We never write “1” as a subscript. The presence of the symbol indicates that at least one is present already. F BaF 2 Ex. 14: Barium and Fluorine F Ba 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each element. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed. Ba Neither subscript may be simplified any further. Done! You’ve just built barium fluoride.

22 4 Note: We never write “1” as a subscript. The presence of the symbol indicates that at least one is present already. 2 V VSe 2 Ex. 15: Vandium (IV) and Selenium Se V 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each element. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed. Se Both subscripts may be divided by 2 to simplify. 1 Done! You’ve just built vanadium (IV) selenide.

23 Practice on Your Own: 1.Iridium (III) Iodide – 2.Sodium Silicide – 3.Calcium Nitride – 4.Lithium Oxide – 5.Zinc (II) Phosphide – 6.Iron (II) Oxide – 7.Calcium Carbide – 8.Manganese (VII) Nitride – 9.Cesium Selenide – 10.Strontium Bromide – IrI 3 Ca 2 C Ca 3 N 2 Li 2 O Zn 3 P 2 FeO Na 4 Si Mn 3 N 7 Cs 2 Se SrBr 2

24 Working with Polyatomics Remember, polyatomics are a series of charged particles (ions) made up of more than one atom. Hence poly- (many), - atomic (atoms) means “many atoms.” For Example, Carbonate Ion: CO 3 2- (CO 3 ) 2- The (2-) charge applies to the ENTIRE polyatomic. So, when you “swap and drop,” you will be doing so to the entire thing all at once. =

25 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 (NH 4 ) Ex. 16: Ammonium and Carbonate CO 3 2- NH Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each element. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed. (CO 3 ) Neither subscript may be simplified any further. 1 Note: We never write “1” as a subscript. The presence of the symbol indicates that at least one is present already. Also, you can remove the parenthesis in this case. Done! You’ve just built ammonium carbonate

26 Pb Pb 2 (Cr 2 O 7 ) 3 Ex. 17 : Lead (III) and Dichromate Cr 2 O 7 2- Pb 3+ 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each element. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed. (Cr 2 O 7 ) Neither subscript may be simplified any further. 3 Done! You’ve just built ammonium carbonate

27 Na 2 C 2 O 4 Na Ex. 18 : Sodium and Oxalate C 2 O 4 2- Na 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each particle. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed. (C 2 O 4 ) Neither subscript may be simplified any further. 1 Done! You’ve just built sodium oxalate. Note: We never write “1” as a subscript. The presence of the symbol indicates that at least one is present already. Also, you can remove the parenthesis in this case.

28 (SO 4 ) Pb(SO 4 ) 2 Pb Ex. 19 : Lead (IV) and Sulfate SO 4 2- Pb 4+ 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each particle. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed Both subscripts may be divided by 2. 4 Done! You’ve just built lead (IV) sulfate. 1 2

29 3 1 1 Fe Note: We never write “1” as a subscript. The presence of the symbol indicates that at least one is present already. Also, you can remove the parenthesis in this case. (AsO 4 ) FeAsO 4 Ex. 20 : Iron (III) and Arsenate AsO 4 3- Fe 3+ 1.Place the metal or positive ion in front of the non-metal or negative ion. 2.Use the periodic table or a chart to find the charges of each particle. Ionics are made of “ions” or charged particles. 3.Swap the charges and drop them below the elements or ions they represent. 4.Remove the plus and minus signs- these numbers are no longer being used as charges. 5.Simplify, if needed Both subscripts may be divided by 3. Done! You’ve just built iron (III) arsenate.

30 A quick note: Going from names to formulas follows a fairly easy and consistent pattern. However, going from formulas to names can prove tricky if transition metals are involved. REMEMBER: always find the charge of a transition metal (virtually any metal that is NOT in the “s” block (groups 1 and 2) and place it as a roman numeral in your compound’s name.) Watch out for simplification! You may have to reverse this to find the actual charge of a transition metal.

31 You can prevent these mistakes quite easily by putting your polyatomics in parentheses when you see them and before you do any “swapping and dropping” - like this: Quick tip! When reversing a “swap and drop,” be careful not to accidentally use a subscript that is part of a polyatomic. For example: FeNO 3 Fe (NO) Fe (NO 3 ) FeNO 3 Fe 1 (NO 3 ) 1

32 Practice on Your Own: 1.Lead (IV) chlorite - 2.Cesium phosphate - 3.Ammonium sulfate - 4.Ammonium sulfide - 5.Ammonium sulfite - 6.La(ClO 4 ) Fe 3 PO Ag 2 CO V(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) CuSO 3 - Pb(ClO 2 ) 4 Cs 3 PO 4 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (NH 4 ) 2 S (NH 4 ) 2 SO 3 Lanthanum (III) perchlorate Iron (I) phosphate Silver (I) carbonate Vanadium (V) acetate Copper (II) sulfite

33 Advanced Practice The slides that follow deal with naming and determining formulas under a variety of conditions. Remember: –Transition metals are given their charges with a roman numeral. This must be shown in naming them. –If you are using names to find formulas, be careful. You may have to reverse simplifications to find the true charges of transition metals. –Polyatomics are given specific names that should not be altered. –These problems are excellent practice and should be worked through carefully.

34 First, name the cation and anion, in order. Note that iron, Fe, is a transition metal. We will have to find the original charge of the iron to finish this name. Finally, ask yourself if these numbers have been simplified. The oxygen is “-2” as we expect. This means that no simplification has occurred and that we can assume iron has a 3+ charge. Iron (III) Oxide Oxide Example 21: Name Fe 2 O 3 Iron (?) To find the charge of the iron we will have to reverse the “swap and drop” we normally do when creating formulas. Fe O Now that the charges are back, they can be made + and – again. After checking our work, we can conclude that the charge on iron is +3 this time, so we use iron (III) in the name.

35 Finally, ask yourself if these numbers have been simplified. The oxygen is “-1” while we know it should be “-2”. This means that both charges were divided by 2 to simplify at some point. Iron (II) Oxide Oxide Example 22: Name FeO Iron (?) First, name the cation and anion, in order. Note that iron, Fe, is a transition metal. We will have to find the original charge of the iron to finish this name. To find the charge of the iron we will have to reverse the “swap and drop” we normally do when creating formulas. Fe O Now that the charges are back, they can be made + and – again. After checking our work, we can conclude that the charge on iron is +2 this time, so we use iron (II) in the name. Multiply by 2 to reverse the simplification and find the original charges that were given to iron and oxygen

36 Multiply by 2 to reverse the simplification and find the original charges that were given to manganese and chromate. First, name the cation and anion, in order. Note that manganese, Mn, is a transition metal. We will have to find the original charge of the Mn to finish this name. To find the charge of the manganese we will have to reverse the “swap and drop” we normally do when creating formulas. Now that the charges are back, they can be made + and – again. Finally, ask yourself if these numbers have been simplified. The chromate is “-1” while we know it should be “-2”. This means that both charges were divided by 2 to simplify at some point. After checking our work, we can conclude that the charge on Mn is +4 this time, so we use manganese (IV) in the name. 4+ Manganese (IV) Chromate Chromate Example 23: Name Mn(CrO 4 ) 2 Manganese (?) Mn (CrO 4 )

37 Finally, ask yourself if these numbers have been simplified. The sulfite is “-2” while we know it should be “-2”. This means that simplification has not occurred. First, name the cation and anion, in order. Note that copper, Cu, is a transition metal. We will have to find the original charge of the Cu to finish this name. To find the charge of the copper we will have to reverse the “swap and drop” we normally do when creating formulas. Now that the charges are back, they can be made + and – again. Cu (SO 3 ) 1+ After checking our work, we can conclude that the charge on Cu is +1 this time, so we use copper (I) in the name. Copper (I) Sulfite Sulfite Example 24: Name Cu 2 SO 3 Copper (?)

38 Finally, ask yourself if these numbers have been simplified. The phosphate is “-1” while we know it should be “-3”. This means that both charges were divided by 3 to simplify at some point. First, name the cation and anion, in order. Note that vanadium, V, is a transition metal. We will have to find the original charge of the vandadium to finish this name. To find the charge of the vanadium we will have to reverse the “swap and drop” we normally do when creating formulas. Now that the charges are back, they can be made + and – again. After checking our work, we can conclude that the charge on vanadium is +3 this time, so we use vanadium (III) in the name. Multiply by 3 to reverse the simplification and find the original charges that were given to vanadium and phosphate. Vanadium (III) Phosphate 3+ V (PO 4 ) Phosphate Example 25: Name VPO 4 Vanadium (?)

39 Practice on Your Own Fe 3 AsO 4 - CuF - Pb(NO 3 ) 2 - Ir(Cr 2 O 7 ) 3 - Zr(S 2 O 3 ) 2 - Ag 2 C 2 O 4 - Ti(CN) 4 - Ga 2 (SO 4 ) 3 - WCrO 4 - (NH 4 ) 3 PO 3 - Iron (I) arsenate Copper (I) fluoride Lead (II) nitrate Iridium (VI) dichromate Zirconium (IV) thiosulfate Silver (I) oxalate Titanium (IV) cyanide Gallium (III) sulfate Tungsten (II) chromate Ammonium phosphite

40 Excellent! If you’ve made it this far, you should have virtually complete mastery of chemical nomenclature. Congratulations!


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