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Activity 1-5. Draw a picture of the spectrum Draw the four lines in the hydrogen spectrum under the whole spectrum Label the four lines: Red656 nm Green486.

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Presentation on theme: "Activity 1-5. Draw a picture of the spectrum Draw the four lines in the hydrogen spectrum under the whole spectrum Label the four lines: Red656 nm Green486."— Presentation transcript:

1 Activity 1-5

2

3 Draw a picture of the spectrum Draw the four lines in the hydrogen spectrum under the whole spectrum Label the four lines: Red656 nm Green486 nm Blue 434 nm Violet410 nm

4 Activity 1-6—EC’s Valence=last energy level! 1.Which elements have 1 valence e-? 2.Which elements have 3 valence e-? 3.Which elements have 4 valence e-? 4.Which elements have 5 valence e-? 5.Which elements have 6 valence e-? 6.Which elements have 7 valence e-? 7.Which elements have a full valence level?

5 Ionization energies

6 In your notes: Define: X + 1 st I.E.  X + + 1e - X nd I.E.  X e - For example Mg + 1 st I.E.  Mg + + 1e - As nd I.E.  As e -

7 In your notes: 1)How does the 1 st ionization energy change as you go across a row? (period.) 2)How does the 1 st ionization energy change as you go down a column? (group) 3)How do these changes relate to the size of the atoms?

8 In your notes: 4)Where does the 1 st ionization energy graph have peaks? 5)Where does the 1 st ionization energy graph fall? 6)Where does the 2 nd ionization energy graph have peaks? 7)Where does the 2 nd ionization energy graph fall? 8)How does the ionization energy relate to electron configuration?

9 In your notes: 9)Compare the 1 st ionization energies of metals in a row to the non-metals in the same row. 10)Compare the sizes of the metal atoms in a row to the sizes of the non-metals in the same row. 11)Compare the electron configurations of the metals in a row to the non-metals in the same row. 12) What makes an element a metal?

10 On your graph: Make a note of the answers to questions 1-12 on the graph. Include an arrow from each answer to a part of the graph that relates to the answer.

11 Activity 1-7 How and why does an atom ionize?

12 Valence energy level EC # e- in valence level Total electron # Noble gasses Helium Neon Argon Xenon Radon

13 Loses ___ e- # e- more than last noble gas EC (valence level) Ion charge Metals Na K Ca Mg Sr Al

14 Gains ___ e- # e- less than next noble gas EC (valence level) Ion charge Nonmetals N O F S Cl Br

15 Why does the oxide ion have 10 e-?

16 (Does your answer include: How many e- does an oxygen atom have? What is its EC? Does it gain or lose e-?Metal or Nonmetal? How many?What is the charge on the ion? What EC does it attain? …and “Everybody wants to be a noble gas!”

17 Why does the strontium ion have 36 e-?

18 (Does your answer include: How many e- does an strontium atom have? What is its EC?Metal or nonmetal? Does it gain or lose e-? How many?Charge on ion? What EC does it attain? …and “Everybody wants to be a noble gas!”

19 How many electrons does a beryllium ion have? Why?

20 Name an ion that has 54 e-. Why does it have this many?

21 Activity 1-8 Forming ionic compounds. An electron dot diagram shows a symbol with one dot for each valence electron. Al Br

22 Make a poster to show the formation of an ionic compound 1)Choose a metal and a nonmetal 2)Draw electron dot diagrams for each 3)Draw arrows to show the transfer of electrons 4)Add atoms to provide or accept enough electrons to empty and fill valence levels 5)Draw the ions after the transfer, with valence electrons and charges 6)Write the reaction 7)Name the product

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24 Nomeclature One name for each substance, one substance for each (valid) name

25 Formulas A formula shows the number and type of atoms in a compound

26 Formulas A formula shows the number and type of atoms in a compound Na 2 SO 3 ……means…

27 Formulas A formula shows the number and type of atoms in a compound Na 2 SO 3 Two sodium One sulfur Three oxygen

28 Formulas A formula shows the number and type of atoms in a compound Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 ……means…

29 Formulas A formula shows the number and type of atoms in a compound Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 ……means… (distribute the “3”)

30 Formulas A formula shows the number and type of atoms in a compound Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 Two ironThree chromium Twelve oxygen

31 If it is a… The nomenclature rules depend on what type of substance. They include: 1.Ionic compounds 2.Covalent compounds 3.Acids

32 If it is a… The type of substance refers to it’s elements: 1.Ionic compounds—begins with a metal 2.Covalent compounds—no metals 3.Acids—begins with H

33 Ionic compounds: Formula to name Name (don’t count) the ions. MgO BaCl 2 Na 2 SO 3 NiBr 3 Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 Name the ions

34 Ionic compounds: Formula to name Name (don’t count) the ions. MgOmagnesium oxide BaCl 2 Na 2 SO 3 NiBr 3 Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 Name the ions Not “oxygen”

35 Ionic compounds: Formula to name Name (don’t count) the ions. MgOmagnesium oxide BaCl 2 barium chloride Na 2 SO 3 NiBr 3 Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 Name the ions Not “dichloride”

36 Ionic compounds: Formula to name Name (don’t count) the ions. MgOmagnesium oxide BaCl 2 barium chloride Na 2 SO 3 sodium sulfite NiBr 3 Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 Name the ions Look it up!

37 Now, wait a minute Two compounds of bromine and nickel: NiBr 3 and NiBr 2 Not both nickel bromide Transition element ions are written with a Roman numeral to show the charge.

38 Ionic compounds: Formula to name Name (don’t count) the ions. MgOmagnesium oxide BaCl 2 barium chloride Na 2 SO 3 sodium sulfite NiBr 3 nickel (III) bromide Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 Name the ions + charge on the metal

39 Ionic compounds: Formula to name Name (don’t count) the ions. MgOmagnesium oxide BaCl 2 barium chloride Na 2 SO 3 sodium sulfite NiBr 3 nickel (III) bromide Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 iron (III) chromate Name the ions

40 Ionic compounds: Formula to name Name (don’t count) the ions. NaBr K 2 O (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 FeS CrI 3

41 Ionic compounds: Formula to name Name (don’t count) the ions. NaBrsodium bromide K 2 Opotassium oxide (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 ammonium carbonate FeSiron (II) sulfide CrI 3 chromium (III) iodide

42 Warnings Groups 1, 2 and aluminum do NOT get a Roman numeral Count your charges to get the transition element charge. Roman numeral is part of an ion’s name

43 Ionic compounds: Name to formula Balance your charges Lithium chloride calcium bromide Aluminum sulfate cobalt (II) oxide nickel (III) nitrite

44 Ionic compounds: Name to formula Balance your charges Lithium chloride LiCl calcium bromide CaBr 2 Aluminum sulfateAl 2 (SO 4 ) 3 cobalt (II) oxide CoO nickel (III) nitriteNi(NO 2 ) 3

45 Warnings Use () when you double or triple a polyatomic ion Balance your charges

46 Prefixes (Back of your chart) 1.Mono- 2.Di- 3.Tri- 4.Tetra- 5.Penta- 6.Hexa- 7.Hepta- 8. Octo- 9. Nona- 10. Deca- 11. Undeca- 12. Dodeca- 13. Trisdeca- … 20. Icosa-

47 Covalent compounds: Formula to name Name the atoms, in order, with prefixes (ends in –ide) N 2 S 5 CCl 4 P 2 O 5 BF 3

48 Covalent compounds: Formula to name Name the atoms, in order, with prefixes (ends in –ide) N 2 S 5 dinitrogen pentasulfide CCl 4 carbon tetrachloride P 2 O 5 diphosphorus pentoxide BF 3 boron trifluoride

49 Warnings First element is named, second one ends in “–ide” “a” or “o” is dropped from prefix before “–oxide” “mono-” prefix is omitted on the first atom

50 Covalent compounds: Name to formula Write the atoms, prefixes become subscripts nitrogen trichloride Arsenic trioxide Bromine monochloride Xenon tetrafluoride

51 Covalent compounds: Name to formula Write the atoms, prefixes become subscripts nitrogen trichloride NCl 3 Arsenic trioxideAsO 3 Bromine monochlorideBrCl Xenon tetrafluorideXeF 4

52 Acids If the anion name then the acid name ends in…. is…

53 Acids If the anion name then the acid name ends in…. is… --ideHydro___ic acid --ite___ous acid --ate___ic acid

54 Acids Formula to name HI is _________acid HBrO 4 is _________acid H 2 CO 3 is _________acid H 2 SO 3 is ________acid HClO is ___________acid

55 Acids Formula to name HI is hydroiodic acid HBrO 4 is perbromic acid H 2 CO 3 is carbonic acid H 2 SO 3 is sulfurous acid HClO is hypochlorous acid

56 Acids Name to formula ____is hydrocyanic acid ____ is periodic acid _____ is phosphoric acid _____ is nitrous acid ____ is hypoiodous acid

57 Acids Name to formula HCN is hydrocyanic acid HIO 4 is periodic acid H 3 PO 4 is phosphoric acid HNO 2 is nitrous acid HIO is hypoiodous acid

58 What is the name? K 2 S CrO 3 CaSO 4 Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 CuI 2

59 What is the name? K 2 S Potassium sulfide CrO 3 Chromium (VI) oxide CaSO 4 Calcium sulfate Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 Lead (II) acetate CuI 2 Copper (II) iodide

60 Gold (I) chloride Lithium oxide Iron (II) cyanide Potassium chlorate Nickel (II) nitrate What is the formula?

61 Gold (I) chloride AuCl Lithium oxide Li 2 O Iron (II) cyanide Fe(CN) 2 Potassium chlorate KClO 3 Nickel (II) nitrate Ni(NO 3 ) 2 What is the formula?

62 N 2 O 3 P 4 O 6 Cl 2 O XeF 2 BrF 5 What is the name?

63 N 2 O 3 dinitrogen trioxide P 4 O 6 tetraphosphorus hexoxide Cl 2 O dichlorine monoxide XeF 2 xenon difluoride BrF 5 bromine pentafluoride What is the name?

64 Phosphorus trihydride Dinitrogen monoxide Bromine monochloride Xenon trioxide Iodine heptafluoride What is the formula?

65 Phosphorus trihydridePH 3 Dinitrogen monoxide N 2 O Bromine monochlorideBrCl Xenon trioxide XeO 3 Iodine heptafluorideIF 7 What is the formula?

66 H 3 PO 4 H 2 SO 3 HClO 3 H 2 CrO 4 HCN What is the name?

67 H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid H 2 SO 3 sulfurous acid HClO 3 chloric acid H 2 CrO 4 chromic acid HCNhydrocyanic acid What is the name?

68 Hypochlorous acid Hydrobromic acid Oxalic acid Nitrous acid Perchloric acid What is the formula?

69 Hypochlorous acid HClO Hydrobromic acidHBr Oxalic acidH 2 C 2 O 4 Nitrous acidHNO 2 Perchloric acidHClO 4 What is the formula?

70 It’s a puzzlement What is the name? Cu 2 S CuS

71 It’s a puzzlement What is the name? Cu 2 S CuS Do you get it?

72 It’s a puzzlement What is the name? Cu 2 S CuS Copper (I) sulfide Copper (II) sulfide Do you get it?

73 It’s a puzzlement What is the name? Cu 2 S CuS Copper (I) sulfide Copper (II) sulfide Do you get it?

74 Oxygen gas Calcium metal Solid phosphorus Fluorine gas Argon gas What is the formula?

75 Oxygen gas O 2 Calcium metalCa(s) Solid phosphorusP 4 Fluorine gasF 2 Argon gasAr What is the formula?

76 Mn(s) H 2 I 2 S 8 Br 2 What is the name?

77 Mn(s) manganese metal H 2 hydrogen gas I 2 solid iodine S 8 solid sulfur Br 2 liquid bromine What is the name?

78 Name these compounds Common NameChemical Formula a. Sugar of leadPb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 b. Blue vitrolCuSO 4 c. Epsom saltsMgSO 4 7H 2 O d. Milk of magnesiaMg(OH) 2 e. GypsumCaSO 4 f. Laughing gasN 2 O

79 Write the formula Sulfur difluoride Sulfur hexafluoride Sodium dihydrogen phosphate Lithium nitride Chromium (III) carbonate Tin (II) fluoride Ammonium acetate Ammonium hydrogen sulfate Cobalt (III) nitrate Mercury (I) chloride Potassium chlorate Sodium hydride

80 What is the name? NaCl RbBr CsF AlI 3 HI NO NF 3 N 2 F 4 N 2 Cl 2 SiF 4 H 2 Se HNO 3 HNO 2 H 3 PO 4 H 3 PO 3 NaHSO 4 Ca(HSO 3 ) 2 Ru(NO 3 ) 3 V 2 O 5


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