Presentation on theme: "Atom Scientist have accepted that the smallest parts of substances are called atoms. Atom has basically two parts, nucleus and electrons. Nucleus is located."— Presentation transcript:
Atom Scientist have accepted that the smallest parts of substances are called atoms. Atom has basically two parts, nucleus and electrons. Nucleus is located in the center of atom and electrons are rotating around nucleus with high speed. Atom means indivisible derived from atomos in Greek language because of its very small size.
Subatomic Particles Scientist believed that atoms were indivisible up to 20 th century. Today it is well known that atoms have subatomic particles, called protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons are positively charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom, and denoted by “p”. Each element has certain number of protons which differ the element from others.
Subatomic Particles Neutrons are neutral particles found in the nucleus of an atom, and denoted by “n”. Electrons are negatively charged particles placed around the nucleus of an atom, and shown by “e - ”. Protons and neutrons almost have the same masses, but electrons have negligible mass with respect to protons and neutrons.
Neutral atoms have the equal number of protons and electrons. Electrons are rotating in certain places called orbit, energy level or shell. Energy levels are represented by letters, K, L, M, N, O…etc, or numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, …etc. Each shell can hold a certain number of electrons calculated by the equation of “2n 2 ” where n refers to number of shell. The electrons located in the outermost shell of atoms are called valence electrons.
In the 1 st shell, No. of e - = 2x1 2 = 2e - In the 2 nd shell, No. of e - = 2x2 2 = 8e - In the 3 rd shell, No. of e - = 2x3 2 = 18e - In the 4 th shell, No. of e - = 2x4 2 = 32e - Example 1 Show the electron configuration of 6 C and 13 Al atoms.
Isotopes Isotope atoms have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. They have similar chemical properties but different physical properties. Example 2 atoms are isotopes. All they have 6 protons but 6, 7 and 8 neutrons respectively.
Isotones, atoms with the same number of neutrons, but different numbers of protons. Example 3 atoms are isotones. Each have 16 neutrons but 15 and 16 protons respectively. Isotone atoms are completely different atoms, they have different chemical and physical characteristics. Isotones Example 3 atoms are isotones. Example 3 atoms are isotones. Example 3 atoms are isotones.
Ions Electrically charged atoms are called ions. When an atom loses electrons it becomes positively charged ion, called cation. When an atom gains electrons it becomes negatively charged ion, called anion. Charge of an atom, q, can be found with q = p - e.
Example Find the charge and ion type of atom. AtomProtonElectronChargeIon Fe2624 Al1310 O8 P15 Cl1718
The Atomic Terminology Atomic number = Number of Protons Each type of atom has different number of protons. For a neutral atom, Atomic number = Number of protons = Number of electrons Z = p = e 1. Atomic Number, Z
Atomic mass number = Number of Protons + Number of Neutrons A = p + n 2. Atomic Mass Number, A Example Fill in the blanks in the table below. AtompnZA Ti2248 Al1427 S16 Br4535
Solution AtompnZA Ti Al S16 31 Br
Example What is the number of protons and atomic mass number of Zn.
Solution +2 = p – 28 p = 30 A = A = 65
Example Cr +3 ion has 21 electrons and its atomic mass number is 52. What is the number of neutrons for Cr ?
Most of the elements in nature are found as a mixture of isotope atoms. The average atomic mass is the average masses of natural isotopes of an element. Average Atomic Mass Average Atomic Mass = A 1 x% of 1 st isotope + A 2 x% of 2 nd isotope + …… A 1 and A 2 are atomic mass numbers of natural isotopes.
Example Naturally occurring Ga consists of 60% 69 Ga and 40% 71 Ga. What is the average mass of Ga? Solution Average Atomic Mass = A 1 x% of 1 st isotope + A 2 x% of 2 nd isotope + …… = amu