Presentation on theme: "Covalent Compounds A covalent bond is formed when electrons are “shared” between two atoms."— Presentation transcript:
Covalent Compounds A covalent bond is formed when electrons are “shared” between two atoms.
Covalent Compounds Most contain all non-metals that combine to form molecules of a substance. Example: H 2 O is water, CH 4 is methane.
Covalent Compounds Covalent compounds have elements whose electronegativity values are within 1.67 of each other. Pg. 241 [http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/476/488316/Instructor_Resources/Chapter_10/FG10_02.JPG]
Covalent Compounds Most have low melting points (and boiling points). Exist as solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature. Most are not good conductors of electricity.
Covalent Compound Names Use prefixes to show the quantity of each element in a covalent compound. Pg. 246 [http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/mcmurry2/chapter2/medialib/TB02_002.JPG]
Covalent Compound Names Always end the last element with the suffix –ide. Example: N 2 O 4 Dinitrogen tetroxide
Covalent Compound Names Example: H 2 O Dihydrogen monoxide (Otherwise known as water!) Click here for the Coalition to Ban DHMO
Covalent Compound Names Important Exception: Never use the prefix mono- on the 1 st element! Example: CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride (Note: no mono- on carbon!)
Covalent Compound Formulas Use prefixes from names in order to determine the subscripts in the formulas. Example: Carbon Dioxide CO 2 Example: Diphosphorus Pentoxide P 2 O 5
Acids Appear to be covalent compound, but separate into cations (+) and anions (-) in water. The cation is usually H + Example: HCl or Hydrochloric Acid H + and Cl - when in water.
Acids If there is just a single anion, the prefix is hydro- and the suffix is –ic. Example: HBr Hydrobromic Acid Example: HF Hydrofluoric Acid
Acids If there is a polyatomic ion, you just use the suffix –ic. Example: HNO 3 Nitric Acid Example: H 3 PO 4 ic Phosphoric Acid