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Honors Chemistry 1st Semester Review

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1 Honors Chemistry 1st Semester Review

2 Scientific Method - Observe
Observation – the receiving knowledge or data through the senses, or from scientific instruments Inferences – Assumptions based on observations. Example: Observation: Car won’t start in the morning. What would you assume (or infer) the problem is?

3 Scientific Method - Observe
Observations: 1. Qualitative Do you like this powerpoint? Usually uses the five senses. 2. Quantitative How many words are on this powerpoint? Usually can be answered precisely.

4 Scientific Method - Hypothesis
Hypothesis : a statement that answers a question (a possible explanation) Tells what are the independent and dependent variables and how to measure them.

5 How do Scientists Communicate?
By sharing information. Poster sessions Presentations at conferences/meetings Scientific Journals Shared Data Bases - Internet What happens when scientists disagree? Scientific arguments are solved through further observation and experimentation

6 To reveal data trends, data is placed in graphs
Time (min) Temp. (˚C) 1 2 3 5 4 10 15 6 20 7 25 8 9 30

7 Finding Volume of Irregularly shaped items
This is called Water Displacement

8 The Graduated Cylinder Measures Volume
Start by locating the meniscus Always make your reading at the bottom of the meniscus!!

9 Finding Density Density is a ratio between mass and volume.
You need to divide to find the ratio. Density = mass divided by volume OR D = M/V

10 Electronic Balance Measures Mass
Turn balance on Make sure it reads “0” Place item on balance Obtain mass Turn balance off SI Unit for mass is the kg

11 Syllabus What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Chlorine – gas will kill you Sodium – metal reacts violently with oxygen It is stored in oil. Sodium + Chlorine = Table Salt which our bodies need

12 Pure vs. Applied Science
BOTTOM LINE: Pure Science is just for the knowledge. Applied Science is for someone to make money off of the invention (new technology) 12

13 What IS science based on?
Experimentation Observation

14 Rules for significant figures:
All nonzero digits are significant (1-9): 1.234 g has 4 significant figures 1.2 g has 2 significant figures (2) Zeroes between nonzero digits are significant: 1002 kg has 4 significant figures mL has 3 significant figures (3) Leading zeros (left) of the first nonzero digits are NOT significant; They indicate the position of the decimal point: 0.001°C has only 1 significant figure 0.012 g has 2 significant figures

15 (4) Trailing zeroes (after a decimal point) are significant:
mL has 3 significant figures, g has 2 significant figures. (5) When a number ends in zeroes that are not to the right of a decimal point, the zeroes are not necessarily significant: 190 miles may be 2 or 3 significant figures 50,600 calories may be 3, 4, or 5 sig figures The potential ambiguity in the last rule can be avoided by the use of standard exponential, or "scientific," notation.

16 What is an "exact number"? Some numbers are exact because they are known with complete certainty. Most exact numbers are integers: exactly 12 inches are in a foot, there might be exactly 23 students in a class. Exact numbers are considered to have an infinite number of significant figures.

17 Rules for mathematical operations
In calculations, the general rule is that the accuracy of a calculated result is limited by the least accurate measurement involved In addition and subtraction, the result is rounded off so that it has the same number of digits as the measurement having the fewest decimal places (counting from left to right). For example, 101 (3 sig figures) (5 sig figures) =  , which should be rounded to 125 (3 sig figures). = , which should be rounded to (least shared decimal place)

18 2) In multiplication and division, the result should be rounded off so as to have the same number of significant figures as in the component with the least number of significant figures. For example, 3.0 (2 sig figures ) × (4 sig figures) =  which should be rounded to 38 (2 sig figures).

19 Temperature Converting between ºC and K Example Practice ºC = K – 273
K = ºC + 273 Normal human body temperature is 37 ºC. What is your temperature in K? Surgical instruments must be sterilized at 170 ºC. What is this in K?

20 Physical and Chemical Changes
Physical Changes: Do not alter the identity of a substance Crushing, tearing, changes of state (solid to liquid to gas) Chemical Changes: Alter the identity or chemistry of a substance Burning, cooking, rusting

21 What is Matter? Matter is anything that has mass and volume

22 States of Matter Liquid has undefined shape but defined volume

23 Pure Substances – Element
Matter that can not be broken down into simpler substances under normal lab conditions Contains only one kind of atom Atom Molecule Elements (symbols) Na, Au, C Where can you find a list of all the elements?

24 Mixtures: Homogeneous
Mixture with no visibly different parts. Sea water - H2O + NaCl Air - N2 + O2 + CO2

25 Physical and Chemical Changes
Is this a physical or a chemical change? Explain your reasoning. New substances form when there is a chemical change.

26 Atomic theories J.J. Thomson 1897 Experiment - discovered electrons
Atom is made up of charged matter

27 Atomic Theories Ernest Rutherford: 1910 – Planetary Model
Atom is mostly empty space Found the nucleus (a small dense region of positively charged particles). If the nucleus were the size of a marble, Then the atom would be the size of Cardinal’s stadium Theorized about the neutron – not proven until 1932

28 Rutherford – Gold Foil Experiment Discovered the Nucleus

29 Atomic theories John Dalton – 1808 Atomic Theory:
1. Elements are made up of tiny particles called atoms. 2. Atoms of one element are identical. 3. Atoms of other elements are different from each other. 4. Atoms can combine to form compounds. 5 Atoms are not created, nor destroyed, but can change they way they are grouped together.

30 Periodic Table Trends The most important difference between Mendeleev's table and today’s table: the modern table is organized by increasing atomic number, not increasing atomic weight. Why was the table changed? Discovery of isotopes and ions.

31 Periodic Table Atomic Number = Number of Protons
Hydrogen – 1 proton = #1 Helium – 2 protons = #2 Gold – 79 protons = #79 Rules: All elements on the period table are neutral. Therefore, #of protons = #of electrons What about neutrons – we’re coming to that later

32 Periodic Table Trends Groups – Columns Elements within a group share
several common properties. Groups have the same outer electron arrangement. Like families, the share the same characteristics

33 Periodic Table Trends Metals Most of the elements are metals.
You see metals every day. Aluminum foil, gold, silver. If someone asks you whether an element is a metal, metalloid, or non-metal and you don't know the answer, guess that it's a metal. Properties of Metals lustrous (shiny) malleable (can be hammered) good conductors of heat and electricity

34 Periodic Table Trends Group 18: Noble Gases
Helium and neon are examples of noble gases. These elements are used to make lighted signs, refrigerants, and lasers. The noble gases are not reactive. He Never Argued with Superman Xenon’s a Nurse.

35 Periodic Table Trends Group 17: Halogens
(Examples of halogens are chlorine and iodine.) You find these elements in bleaches, disinfectants, and salts. highly reactive.

36 What does this mean and why do we care?
Properties of atoms correlate with the number and energy of electrons Atoms like to have full outer shells Valence electrons have the most energy (this is where all the action occurs) This will help us predict what reactions may occur when we start mixing elements together

37 Main Group Elements & Their Ions
Note periodicity of charges

38 Periodic Table – Long Form

39 Periodic table Atomic # = # of Protons Symbol Atomic Mass

40 Periodic table Isotopes: elements with a different number of neutrons.
Elements have to have the same number of protons to be the same element.

41 Atomic theories Mass Number Protons Neutrons NOT Electrons
(too small to want to count)

42 Periodic table Atomic mass Review: What does one proton weigh?
1 atomic mass unit (amu) What does one neutron weigh? 1 amu What does one electron weigh? So small we will consider it to be zero

43 Periodic table Atomic # = # of Protons Symbol What is this?

44 Periodic table Why the weird number?
We know that Lithium has 3 protons 3 amu We assume it has 3 neutrons We assume the electrons are zero mass. So we total 6 amu. Where is the coming from? Isotopes 6.941 is the average of all the naturally occurring isotopes of lithium.

45 Electron configuration
Li-, Mg Cu2+, F+

46 Main Group Elements & Their Ions
Note periodicity of charges

47 Periodic table Isotopes: elements with a different number of neutrons.
How do we write isotopes? 14C

48 Alkaline Earth Noble Gases Chalcogens Halogens Alkali Transition Metals

49 Periodic Table Trends Nonmetals
upper right side of the periodic table (Yellow) The halogens, the noble gases, and the rest. Poor conductors of heat and electricity. Solid nonmetals are brittle and lack metallic luster.

50 Hund’s Rule: electrons will not share an orbit until needed

51 White Board Practice Lewis Symbols or Lewis Dot Diagrams
We place the electrons on four sides of a square around the element symbol. Practice: O Na Ca Ba Ne H I Cs Check with your partner

52 Shorthand If it is in a row past a noble gas, we can use that for a shortcut. Short-hand Notation [Ne] 3s1 [Ar] 4s2, 3d1 [He] 2s2, 2p5

53 Energy Notes Energy Capacity to do work or produce heat
Capacity to move or change matter

54 Types of Energy Potential Kinetic Stored
Energy of position (water wheel, book on shelf) Chemical energy (gas, food, batteries) Motion Mechanical energy (moving parts of machines) Sound: vibration of molecules Radiant (EMR) Thermal energy (Sun’s heat) Light

55 ENERGY Energy can be converted from one form to another. Law of Conservation of Energy: energy is not created nor destroyed, but can CHANGE from one form to another.

56 3 examples of Chemical Energy.

57 ROYGBIV – backwards – R least energy

58 Wednesday – October 24 Rube Goldberg Poster – Presentations

59 How do atoms release energy?
Energy In Energy Out 59

60 Heat and Temperature Exothermic Endothermic
System that releases energy into its surroundings Release energy because a change has occurred Combustion reactions System that takes energy in as heat from the surroundings Needs energy from outside source in order for a change to occur Changing water to steam Or melting ice

61 How do we measure energy?
SI Unit: Joule (J) 1 Calorie = amount of energy required to raise 1g of water by 1°C 1000cal = 1 kilocalorie = 1Cal = food Calories Conversion Factor 1 calorie = Joules

62 Calculating Energy Specific Heat Capacity or Specific Heat: The amount of energy required to change the temperature of 1 g of substance by 1̊C Units are: J (Joule) g ̊C Centrigrade NOT Calories It takes different amounts of energy to heat different substances.

63 Phase Diagram - Overview

64 Phase Change diagram Exothermic Endothermic
What definition are we missing? sublimation deposition

65 Q= mCT Example 4 Practice 4
What is the specific heat of lead if a 30.0 g piece of lead undergoes a 250ºC change while absorbing calories? cal/gºC = sigfigs? 3.06x10-2 cal/gºC What is the specific heat of an unknown substance if the addition of 950 J of heat energy caused a 20 gram sample to warm from 18ºC to 42ºC? 1.97 cal/gºC = sigfigs? 2.0 cal/gºC

66 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
Crisscross Method Example Write the element symbols for the cation and anion, with the cation on the left and the anion on the right. Write each ion’s charge as a superscript. Crisscross the two charges moving them downward diagonally from one superscript to the other subscript.

67 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
Name  Formula Example: Calcium Chloride Ca +2 and Cl -1 CaCl2 Identify the ions involved List the cation first and then the anion Determine that charge of each ion involved Balance the charges so the compound is neutral.

68 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds
Prefixes 1= mono (can be omitted – assumed) 2= di 3 = tri 4 = tetra 5 = penta 6 = hexa 7 = hepta 8 = octa 9 = nona 10 = deca

69 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds
Practice Name  Formula What is the formula for the following compounds? Write the chemical formula of the first element listed. Write the prefix number as a subscript. Write the chemical formula of the second element listed. Pentachlorine dioxide Carbon monoxide Tribromine hexasulfide

70 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds
Practice FormulaName What is the name of the following compounds? Write the number of the first element as a prefix, add the name of chemical. Write the number of the second element as a prefix, add the name of chemical and end in –ide. P4C8 F9I6 SN3

71 Properties of Covalent Bonds
Solids are usually soft low melting points low boiling points Properties arise because molecules are not strongly held together Usually found with nonmetals

72 Properties of Ionic Bonds
Ionic bonds are very strong (separating ions requires lots of energy) High melting points, boiling points Crystals are hard and brittle Electrical insulators when solid, electrical conductors when molten or dissolved in water Between a metal and a non-metal

73 Why do atoms form bonds? Lewis Dot Diagrams Octet Rule
Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to acquire a full set of valence electrons. Used to illustrate valence electrons Used to illustrate how electrons rearrange during chemical reactions (when bonds are formed or broken)

74 Review: Ions What are Ions?
Ions are formed by adding or subtracting electrons from a neutral atom or molecule. Cation: positive charge Anion: negative charge (remove electrons) Na (add electrons) Cl-

75 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds
Practice FormulaName What is the name of the following compounds? Write the number of the first element as a prefix, add the name of chemical. Write the number of the second element as a prefix, add the name of chemical and end in –ide. P4C8 F9I6 SN3

76 ORGANIC In Chemistry, Organic means it has a carbon atom in it.
Question: can there be an organic ion? NO – carbon does not form ions. Can there be organic covalent bonds? YES – all carbon bonds will be covalent and therefore they will be organic.

77 Carbonated Drinks Carbonate: special group of polyatomic ion CO32-
What kind of Ion does It need to balance? 2+ like what family? Alkaline Earth Metals How many Carbon molecules? 1

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