Presentation on theme: "Bonding IB Chemistry 2 Robinson High School Andrea Carver."— Presentation transcript:
Bonding IB Chemistry 2 Robinson High School Andrea Carver
Chemical Bonding Elements readily combine with one another to form compounds. A Chemical Bond is the attractive force which holds these elements together in a compound. Compounds will have different characteristics than their component elements. Types of Bonding: Ionic, Covalent, Metallic
Ionic Bonding: IB Objectives Describe the ionic bond as the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions Describe how ions can be formed as a result of electron transfer Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in Groups 1,2, and 3 lose electrons Deduce which ions will be formed when elements in Groups 5, 6, and 7 gain electrons State that transition elements can form more than one ion Predict whether a compound of two elements would be ionic from the position of the elements in the Periodic Table or from their electronegativity values State the formula of common polyatomic ions formed by non- metals in Periods 2 and Describe the lattice structure of ionic compounds.
Ion Formation Ions form when electrons are lost or gained. Typically, atoms are neutral. An ion is an atom that carries an electric charge. ◦ Cation-positively charged, lost electrons ◦ Anion- negatively charged, gained electrons
Ion Formation The periodic table may be used to predict the type/charge of ions formed by an element. ◦ Electrons will be gained/lost so that the atom obtains 8 valence electrons. ◦ Elements with less than 4 valence electrons will lose electrons to become cations. ◦ Elements with more than 4 valence electrons will gain electrons to become anions.
Ion Formation Transition Elements- These elements are able to gain or lose a variable number of electrons due to their electron configuration. ◦ Examples: Fe: Fe2+ and Fe 3+ Cu: Cu2+ and Cu3+
Ion Formation Polyatomic Ions- Compounds which exist as ions. ◦ Examples: Nitrate Hydroxide Hydrogencarbonate Carbonate Sulfate Phosphate Ammonium
Ionic Bond Formation An Ionic Bond is an electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions. An Ionic Compound is held together by this type of force. ◦ An ionic compound will be electrically neutral because the charges of the ions involved will be balanced.
Ionic Character The Ionic Character of the compound may be predicted by: ◦ Position of the elements on the periodic table: Metals + Nonmetals Bottom Left + Top Right ◦ Electronegativity: Difference in electronegativity greater than 1.8 on the Pauling Scale.
Lattice Structure The ions within an ionic compound arrange themselves within a crystal structure based upon electrostatic forces. ◦ Like charges repel. ◦ Opposite charges attract. The lattice contains a large number of ions. The chemical formula for an ionic compound is really a ratio rather than a true expression of the number of ions within the compound.
Lattice Structure Ionic Lattice- Predictable three dimensional crystalline structure. Lattice Enthalpy- The strength of the force between ions within the lattice. Coordination Number- The number of ions which surround a given ion within the lattice.
Covalent Bonding: IB Objectives Describe the covalent bond as the electrostatic attraction between a pair of electrons and a positively charged nucleus Describe how the covalent bond is formed as a result of electron sharing Deduce the Lewis structures of molecules and ions for up to four electron pairs on each atom State and explain the relationship between the number of bonds, bond length, and bond strength Predict whether a compound of two elements would be covalent from position of the elements on the periodic table or from their electronegativity values Predict the relative polarity of bonds from electronegativity values Predict the shape and bond angles for species with four, three, and two negative charge centers on the central atom using the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) Predict whether or not a molecule is polar from its molecular shape and bond polarities Describe and compare the structure and bonding in the three allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, and C60 fullerene) Describe and compare the structure of and bonding of silicon and silicon dioxide
Shapes of Molecules and Ions: IB Objectives Predict the shape and bond angles for species with five and six negative charge centers using VSEPR theory.
Hybridization: IB Objectives Describe sigma and pi bonds Explain hybridization in terms of the mixing of atomic orbitals to form new orbitals for bonding Identify and explain the relationships between Lewis structures, molecular shapes, and types of hybridization (sp, sp2, and sp3)
Delocalization of Electrons: IB Objectives Describe the delocalization of pi electrons and explain how this can account for the structures of some species.
Intermolecular Forces: IB Objectives Describe the types of intermolecular forces (attractions between molecules that have temporary dipoles, permanent dipoles, or hydrogen bonding) and explain how they arise from the structural features of the molecules Describe and explain how intermolecular forces affect the boiling points of substances.
Metallic Bonding: IB Objectives Describe the metallic bond as the electrostatic attraction between a lattice of positive ions and delocalized electrons Explain the electrical conductivity and malleability of metals.
Physical Properties: IB Objectives Compare and explain the properties of substances resulting from different types of bonding.