# Chemistry 232 Transport Properties.

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Chemistry 232 Transport Properties

Definitions Transport property. Examples.
The ability of a substance to transport matter, energy, or some other property along a gradient. Examples. Diffusion - transport of matter along a concentration gradient. Thermal conductivity - transport of thermal energy along a temperature gradient.

Transport Properties Defined
Examples (cont’d). Viscosity - transport of linear momentum along a velocity gradient. Electrical conductivity - transport of charge along a potential gradient.

Rate of migration of a property is measured by a flux J. Flux (J) - the quantity of that property passing through a unit area/unit time.

Transport Properties in an Ideal Gas
Transport of matter. Transport of energy. T -thermal conductivity coefficient. D - diffusion coefficient. Transport of momentum. =viscosity coefficient.

Diffusion Consider the following system. Z=0 +Z -Z z Nd Nd(-) Nd(z=0)

Number Densities and Fluxes
The number densities and the fluxes of the molecules are proportional to the positions of the molecules.

The Net Flux The net (or total) flux is the sum of the J(LR) and the J(RL).

The Diffusion Coefficient
To a first approximation.

The Complication of Long Trajectories
Not all molecules will reach the imaginary wall at z=0!  2/3 of all molecules will make it to the wall in a given time interval t. Collision Ao

The Final Equation Taking into account of the number of molecules that do not reach the wall.

Thermal Conductivity Consider the following system. Z=0 +Z -Z

Number Densities and Fluxes
Assume each molecule carries an average energy,  = kBT. =3/2 for a monatomic gas. =5/2 for a diatomic gas, etc. z (-) (z=0) (+)

The Net Flux The net (or total) flux is the sum of the J(LR) and the J(RL).

The Thermal Conductivity Coefficient
To a first approximation.

The Final Equation Taking into account of the number of molecules that do not reach the wall.

Viscosity Consider the following system. Z=0 +Z -Z Direction of flow

Number Densities and Fluxes
Molecules traveling L  R transport linear momentum (mvx()) to the new layer at z = 0! z mvx mvx(-) mvx(z=0) mvx(+)

The Net Flux The net (or total) flux is again the sum of the J(LR) and the J(RL).

The Viscosity Coefficient
To a first approximation.

The Final Equation Taking into account of the number of molecules that do not reach the wall.

Viscosities Using Poiseuille’s Law
Relates the rate of volume flow in a tube of length l to Pressure differential across the tube Viscosity of the fluid Radius of the tube

Transport in Condensed Phases
Discussions of transport properties have taken place without including a potential energy term. Condensed phases - the potential energy contribution is important.

Viscosities in Liquids
Liquid layers flowing past one another experience significant attractive interactions. Z=0 +Z -Z Direction of flow

The Viscosity Equation
For liquid systems E*a,vis= activation energy for viscous flow A = pre-exponential factor

Conductivities in Electrolyte Solutions
Fundamental measurement of the mobilities of ions in solutions  electrical resistance of solution. Experimentally - measure AC resistance. Conductance - G = 1/R. R = AC resistance of solution.

Resistance Measurements
Resistance of sample depends on its length and cross-sectional area  = resistivity of the solution.  = conductivity of the solution. Units of conductivity = S/m = 1/( m)

Charge Transport by Ions
Interpreting charge transport. Amount of charge transported by ions. The speed with which individual ions move. The moving ions reach a terminal speed (drift speed). Force of acceleration due to potential gradient balances out frictional retarding force.

Drift Speed Consider the following system. + - 1 2 Length = l

Forces on Ions Accelerating force Retarding force
Due to electric field, Ef = (2 - 1) / l Retarding force Due to frictional resistance, F`= f s S = drift speed F = frictional factor - estimated from Stokes law

The Drift Speed The drift speed is written as follows
zJ = charge of ion o = solvent viscosity e = electronic charge =1.602 x C aJ = solvated radius of ion In water, aJ = hydrodynamic radius.

Connection Between Mobility and Conductivity
Consider the following system. + - d+=s+t d-=s-t -Z Z=0 +Z

Ion Fluxes For the cations J+ = + cJ NA s+ += Number of cations
cJ = electrolyte concentration S+ = Cation drift speed

Ion Flux (Cont’d) Flux of anions J- = - cJ NA s-
- = Number of cations cJ = electrolyte concentration S- = anion drift speed

Ion Flux and Charge Flux
Total ion flux Jion = J+ + J- = S  cJ NA Note   = + + - Total charge flux Jcharge = Jion z e = (S  cJ NA) z e = ( cJ NA) z e u Ef

The Conductivity Equation.
Ohm’s law I = Jcharge A The conductivity is related to the mobility as follows F = Faraday’s constant = C/mole

Measurement of Conductivity
Problem - accurate measurements of conductivity require a knowledge of l/A. Solution - compare the resistance of the solution of interest with respect to a standard solution in the same cell.

The Cell Constant The cell constant, C*cell = * R*
* - literature value for conductivity of standard solution. R* - measured resistance of standard solution. Conductivity -  = C*cell R Standard solutions - KCl (aq) of various concentrations!

Molar Conductivities Molar conductivity
M = 1000  / cJ Note c in mole/l Molar conductivity - extensive property Two cases Strong electrolytes Weak electrolytes

Ionic Contributions The molar conductivity can be assumed to be due to the mobilities of the individual ions.

Molar Conductivities (Cont’d)
Molar conductivities as a function of electrolyte concentration. m C1/2 Strong electrolytes Weak electrolytes

Strong Electrolyte Case
Kohlrausch’s law om = molar conductivity of the electrolyte at infinite dilution A = molar conductivity slope - depends on electrolyte type.

Weak Electrolytes The Ostwald dilution law.
K = equilibrium constant for dissociation reaction in solution.

Law of Independent Migration
Attributed to Kohlrausch. Ions move independently of one another in dilute enough solution. Table of o values for ions in textbook.

Conductivity and Ion Diffusion
Connection between the mobility and conductivities of ions. DoJ = ionic diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution.

Ionic Diffusion (Cont’d)
For an electrolyte. Essentially, a restatement of the law of independent migration. ONLY VALID NEAR INFINITE DOLUTION.

Transport Numbers Fraction of charge carried by the ions – transport numbers. t+ = fraction of charge carried by cations. t- = fraction of charge carried by anions.

Transport Numbers and Mobilities
Transport numbers can also be determined from the ionic mobilities. u+ = cation mobility. u- = anion mobility.