Chapter 2. In 1808 an English scientist John Dalton, formulated a precise definition of the of atoms:

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Chapter 2

In 1808 an English scientist John Dalton, formulated a precise definition of the of atoms:

2.2 The Structure of the Atom After Dalton a series of investigations led to the discovery of three smaller particles: electrons, protons and neutrons.

Atomic components:

All atoms can be identified by the number of protons and neutrons they contain. The atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element. In a neutral atom the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so the atomic number also indicates the number of electrons present in the atom.

7 Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei X A Z H 1 1 H (D) 2 1 H (T) 3 1 U 235 92 U 238 92 Mass Number Atomic Number Element Symbol Atomic number, Mass number and Isotopes X A Z H 1 1 H (D) 2 1 H (T) 3 1 Mass Number Atomic Number Element Symbol

8 The Isotopes of Hydrogen

9 11 protons, 13 (24 - 11) neutrons, 11 electrons 11 protons, 12 (23-11) neutrons, 11 electrons How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in Na 24 11 ? How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in Na 23 11 ?

Ions When a neutral atom accept or lose one electron or more it is named an ion. If it lose electrons it is called Cation ( ion with a – ve charge. And named Anion if it accept electrons. Examples page 36 – 40 Arabic book

2.4 The Periodic Table The periodic table, a chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together. Figure 2.10 shows the modern periodic table in which the elements are arranged by atomic number (shown above the element symbol) in horizontal rows called periods and in vertical columns known as groups or families, according to similarities in their chemical properties. The elements can be divided into three categories—metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. A metal is a good conductor of heat and electricity while a nonmetal is usually a poor conductor of heat and electricity. A metalloid has properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals. Figure 2.10 shows that the majority of known elements are metals; only 17 elements are nonmetals, and 8 elements are metalloids. From left to right across any period, the physical and chemical properties of the elements change gradually from metallic to nonmetallic. The periodic table correlates the properties of the elements in a systematic way and helps us to make predictions about chemical behavior. We will take a closer look at this keystone of chemistry in Chapter 8.

13 The Modern Periodic Table Period Group Alkali Metal Noble Gas Halogen Alkali Earth Metal

14 2.5 Molecules and Ions A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces H2H2 H2OH2ONH 3 CH 4 A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms H 2, N 2, O 2, Cl 2, HCl, CO A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms O 3, H 2 O, NH 3, CH 4 diatomic elements

15 An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive or negative charge. cation – ion with a positive charge If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation. anion – ion with a negative charge If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion. Na 11 protons 11 electrons Na + 11 protons 10 electrons Cl 17 protons 17 electrons Cl - 17 protons 18 electrons

16 A monatomic ion contains only one atom A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom K +, F -, Mg 2+, O 2-, Al 3+, N 3- OH -, CN -, NH 4 +, NO 3 -

17 7 protons, 10 (17+3) electrons 26 protons, 24 (26-2) electrons How many protons and electrons are in ? N 14 7 3- How many protons and electrons are in ? Fe 56 26 2+

2.6 Chemical Formulas Chemists use chemical formulas to express the composition of molecules and ionic compounds in terms of chemical symbols. By composition we mean not only the elements present but also the ratios in which the atoms are combined. Here we are concerned with two types of formulas: 1- molecular formulas and 2- empirical formulas. Molecular Formulas A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the.smallest unit of a substance Thus, H 2 is the molecular formula for hydrogen, O 2 is oxygen, O 3 is ozone, and H 2 O is water. Molecular Models: ball-and-stick models and space-filling models ( Figure 2.12) The structural formula: which shows how atoms are bonded to one another in a molecule.

19 Formulas and Models

20 A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance An empirical formula shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance H2OH2O H2OH2O molecularempirical C 6 H 12 O 6 CH 2 O O3O3 O N2H4N2H4 NH 2

21 ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations and an anions The formula is usually the same as the empirical formula The sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero The ionic compound NaCl

22 The most reactive metals (green) and the most reactive nonmetals (blue) combine to form ionic compounds.

23 Formula of Ionic Compounds Al 2 O 3 2 x 3+ = 6+3 x 2- = 6- Al 3+ O 2- MgCl 2 1 x 2+ = 2+2 x 1- = 2- Ca 2+ Br - Na 2 CO 3 1 x 2+ = 2+1 x 2- = 2- Na + CO 3 2-

24 An acid can be defined as a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water. For example: HCl gas and HCl in water Pure substance, hydrogen chloride Dissolved in water (H 3 O + and Cl − ), hydrochloric acid

25

26 An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element. HNO 3 nitric acid H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid

27 A base can be defined as a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH - ) when dissolved in water. NaOH sodium hydroxide KOH potassium hydroxide Ba(OH) 2 barium hydroxide

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