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Chemical Nomenclature 1. Binary Covalent Compounds 2. Binary Ionic Compounds - Type I 3. Binary Ionic Compounds - Type II 4. Ionic Compounds & Polyatomic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Nomenclature 1. Binary Covalent Compounds 2. Binary Ionic Compounds - Type I 3. Binary Ionic Compounds - Type II 4. Ionic Compounds & Polyatomic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Nomenclature 1. Binary Covalent Compounds 2. Binary Ionic Compounds - Type I 3. Binary Ionic Compounds - Type II 4. Ionic Compounds & Polyatomic (Complex) Ions 5. Hydrated Ionic Compounds

2 Type I Binary Ionic Compounds n The metal cations in these compounds have only ONE possible charge. Na + Zn 2+ Al 3+ Ca 2+ sodiumzinc aluminumcalcium The charges are memorized or predicted using a periodic table! n The cations are bonded to nonmetal anions: O 2 - N 3 - F - Br - oxide nitride fluoride bromide Notice that simple anions are always named with the suffix “ide”

3 n In an ionic compound, the charges of the cations and anions must always cancel out. n Subscripts are used if more than one atom is needed to cancel the charges: sodium chloride: Na + and Cl -  NaCl lithium oxide: Li + and O 2-  Li 2 O aluminum bromide: Al 3+ and Br -  AlBr 3 zinc nitride: Zn 2+ and N 3-  Zn 3 N 2 potassium iodide: K + and I -  KI silver phosphide: Ag + and P 3-  Ag 3 P

4 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the formula: K+K+ O 2- K2OK2O Name the compound: Potassium oxide

5 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the formula: Zn 2+ Cl - ZnCl 2 Name the compound: zinc chloride

6 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the formula: Ag + S 2- Ag 2 S Name the compound: silver sulfide

7 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the formula: Al 3+ N 3- AlN aluminum nitride Name the compound:

8 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the formula: Ga 3+ O 2- Ga 2 O 3 Name the compound: gallium oxide

9 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the formula: Ca 2+ I-I- CaI 2 calcium iodide Name the compound:

10 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name: K 3 N potassium nitride Write the ions: K+K+ N 3-

11 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name: AgI silver iodide Write the ions: Ag + I-I-

12 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name: ZnBr 2 zinc bromide Write the ions: Zn 2+ Br -

13 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the names: Al 2 O 3 aluminum oxide Write the ions: Al 3+ O 2-

14 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the names: Ba 3 P 2 barium phosphide Write the ions: Ba 2+ P 3-

15 Examples: Type I Binary Ionic Compounds Write the name: LiH lithium hydride Write the ions: Li + H-H-

16 Type II Binary Ionic Compounds n These are ionic compounds where the metal cation can form TWO different charges. Fe 2 + iron (II) Fe 3 + iron (III) Ni 2 + nickel (II) Ni 3 + nickel (III) Co 2 + cobalt (II) Co 3 + cobalt (III) Cu + copper (I) Cu 2 + copper (II) Au + gold (I) Au 3 + gold (III) Sn 2 + tin (II) Sn 4 + tin (IV) An older system uses suffixes and Latin names, - ous for the lower charge, - ic for the higher charge: Ferrous & Ferric, Cuprous & Cupric, Stannous & Stannic

17 Examples: Type II Binary Ionic Compounds Write the formulas: iron (II) oxide copper (II) chloride tin (IV) sulfide cupric nitride nickel (III) oxide ferrous iodide cobalt (III) selenide Write the names: Fe 2 O 3 SnS NiBr 2 CuS Pb 3 P 2 CuBr FeCl 3

18 Polyatomic (Complex) Ions n All of the cations and anions so far have been simple ions - single atoms that have lost or gained electrons. n A molecule is a particle that forms when two or more atoms bond together. n A complex ion is a charged molecule. Complex ions may be cations or anions. examples: nitrate: NO 3 - sulfate: SO hydroxide: OH -

19 Writing formulas with Complex Ions a) Ammonium chlorideNH 4 Cl b) Silver sulfateAg 2 SO 4 c) Aluminum hydroxideAl(OH) 3 d) Calcium phosphateCa 3 (PO 4 ) 2 e) Iron (III) nitriteFe(NO 2 ) 3 f) Copper(II) permanganateCu(MnO 4 ) 2 g) Ammonium dichromate(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 h) Zinc acetateZn(CH 3 COO) 2

20 Things to Notice n Most complex ions are anions. Ammonium, NH 4 +, is the most common complex cation. n Several complex ions form a short series of ions. The ions differ only in the number of oxygen atoms: perchorateClO 4 - sulfateSO 4 2- chlorateClO 3 - sulfiteSO 3 2- chloriteClO 2 - hypochloriteClO - nitrateNO 3 - nitriteNO 2 -

21 n If an ion carries a charge like “-2” or “-3”, a series of related ions can be formed by adding hydrogen cations (H + ) while still leaving a net charge: examples: Sulfide:S 2- hydrogen sulfide:HS - (bisulfide) Sulfate:SO 4 2- hydrogen sulfate:HSO 4 - (bisulfate) Carbonate:CO 3 2- hydrogen carbonate:HCO 3 - (bicarbonate) Phosphate:PO 4 3- hydrogen phosphate:HPO 4 2- dihydrogen phosphate:H 2 PO 4 -

22 More Formulas with Complex Ions a) Sodium bicarbonateNaHCO 3 b) Nickel (II) hydrogen sulfideNi(HS) 2 c) Aluminum perchlorateAl(ClO 4 ) 3 d) Barium dihydrogen phosphateBa(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 e) Iron (III) sulfiteFe 2 (SO 2 ) 3 f) Cuprous bisulfateCuHSO 4 g) Zinc periodateZn(IO 4 ) 2 h) Lithium seleniteLi 2 SeO 3

23 Hydrated Ionic Compounds n A HYDRATE is an salt that has water molecules trapped within its crystals. n Every hydrate has a certain number of water molecules associated with each formula unit of the ionic compound. The number of water molecules is indicated by using prefixes. monohexa dihepta triocta tetranona pentadeca CuSO 4 · 5 H 2 O copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate MgCO 3 ·10 H 2 O magnesium carbonate decahydrate

24 Examples of hydrates: n Write the formulas: copper(II) fluoride tetrahydrate CuF 2 ·4 H 2 O calcium nitrate trihydrate Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ·3 H 2 O n Write the names: MgSO 4 · 7 H 2 Omagnesium sulfate heptahydrate FeCl 2 · H 2 Oiron (II) chloride monohydrate


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