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Periodic Trends Sodium chloride (table salt) produced the geometric pattern in the photograph. Such a pattern can be used to calculate the position of.

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Presentation on theme: "Periodic Trends Sodium chloride (table salt) produced the geometric pattern in the photograph. Such a pattern can be used to calculate the position of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Periodic Trends Sodium chloride (table salt) produced the geometric pattern in the photograph. Such a pattern can be used to calculate the position of nuclei in a solid. You will learn how properties such as atomic size are related to the location of elements in the periodic table. 6.3

2 Chapter 6 The Periodic Table 6.3 Periodic Trends

3 Today we are learning to:- 1. Describe trends in the periodic table for atomic size 2. Explain how ions form 3. Describe periodic trends for 1 st ionization energy, ionic size and electronegativity

4 Trends in Atomic Size The atomic radius is one half of the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined. 6.3

5 The are 3 main factors that will have an effect on the size on an atom. 1.Nuclear charge (the charge on the nucleus). A larger positive charge on a nucleus will pull electrons closer to it. 2.The number of the outermost energy level containing electrons. n = 3 is further from the nucleus than n = 2. 3.The number of inner electrons shielding the outer electrons from the nucleus Trends in Atomic Size Periodic TrendsAtomic Radius

6 Group and Periodic Trends in Atomic Size In general, atomic size increases from top to bottom within a group and decreases from left to right across a period. Trends in Atomic Size

7 6.3 Trends in Atomic Size Size goes UP on going down a group. Because electrons are added farther from the nucleus, there is less attraction. Size goes DOWN on going across a period. Because of greater nuclear attraction Size goes UP on going down a group. Because electrons are added farther from the nucleus, there is less attraction. Size goes DOWN on going across a period. Because of greater nuclear attraction

8 Atomic Radii

9 6.3

10 Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms. Trends in Ionic Size

11 Positive and negative ions form when electrons are transferred between atoms. 6.3 Trends in Ionic Size

12 Ions Some compounds are composed of particles called ions. An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge. A cation is an ion with a positive charge. An anion is an ion with a negative charge. Metal atoms tend to lose electrons, and nonmetal atoms tend to gain electrons when they react together. The transfer of electrons effects the size of the ions formed Cations are always smaller than the atoms from which they form. Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they form. 6.3 Trends in Ionic Size

13 Does the size go up or down when losing an electron to form a cation? Does the size go up or down when losing an electron to form a cation? Trends in Ionic Size

14 CATIONS are SMALLER than the atoms from which they come. There is no longer an electron in the 2s orbital and so size DECREASES. Li,152 pm 3e and 3p Li +, 78 pm 2e and 3 p + Forming a cation. Trends in Ionic Size

15 Does the size go up or down when gaining an electron to form an anion?

16 ANIONS are LARGER than the atoms from which they come. The electron/electron repulsion in the 2p orbital increases because of the extra electron and so size INCREASES. Trends in ion sizes are the same as atom sizes. Forming an anion. F, 71 pm 9e and 9p F -, 133 pm 10 e and 9 p - Trends in Ionic Size

17 Relative Sizes of Some Atoms and Ions 6.3 Trends in Ionic Size

18

19 6.3 Size generally increases Trends in Ionic Size

20 6.3

21 The energy required to remove an electron from an atom in its gaseous state is called ionization energy. Unit of measurement is KJ/mol (kilojoules per mole) The energy required to remove the first electron from an atom is called the first ionization energy. The energy required to remove an electron from an ion with a 1+ charge is called the second ionization energy. First ionization energy tends to decrease from top to bottom within a group and increase from left to right across a period. 6.3 Trends in Ionization Energy

22 6.3 Trends in Ionization Energy

23 6.3 Trends in Ionization Energy

24 6.3 Trends in Ionization Energy

25 6.3 Trends in Electronegativity Electronegativity is the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound. In general, electronegativity values decrease from top to bottom within a group. For representative elements, the values tend to increase from left to right across a period.

26 Representative Elements in Groups 1A through 7A 6.3 Trends in Electronegativity

27 6.3 Atomic Size Increases Decreases Size of cationsShieldingNuclear ChargeElectronegativityIonization energySize of anionsIonic size Constant Summary of Trends

28 The succession of elements within a group demonstrates characteristic trends in properties. As you progress down a group: 1. atomic radius increases. 2. electronegativity decreases. 3. first ionization energy decreases. 4. Ionic size increases.

29 Section Assessment The succession of elements within a period demonstrates characteristic trends in properties. As you progress across a group from left to right: 1. atomic radius decreases. 2. electronegativity increases. 3. first ionization energy increases. 4. Ionic size decreases. Summary of Trends

30 1. Which of the following sequences is correct for atomic size? a.Mg > Al > S b.Li > Na > K c.F > N > B d.F > Cl > Br 6.3 Section Quiz

31 2. Metals tend to a.gain electrons to form cations. b.gain electrons to form anions. c.lose electrons to form anions. d.lose electrons to form cations.

32 6.3 Section Quiz 3. Which of the following is the most electronegative? a.Cl b.Se c.Na d.I

33 6.3 Section Quiz 4. How does the size of a barium ion compare with the size of a barium atom? a.The ion is smaller because it has fewer electrons b.The ion is smaller because it has more electrons c.The ion is larger because it has fewer electrons d.The ion is larger because it has more electrons

34 6.3 Section Quiz 5. Which ion has the largest radius? a.Na + b.Mg 2+ c.K + d.Ca 2+

35 6.3 Section Quiz 6. Which of the following is the most electronegative? a.Cl b.Se c.Na d.I

36 6.3 Section Quiz 7. Which element has the highest first ionization energy? a.sodium b.aluminum c.calcium d.phosphorus

37 6.3 Section Quiz 9. Properties of metals include a.Low ionization energy and high electronegativity b.Low ionization energy and low electronegativity c.High ionization energy and high electronegativity d.High ionization energy and low electronegativity

38 6.3 Section Quiz 10. An element has a 1 st ionization energy of 1314KJ/mol and an electronegativity of 3.5. It is classified as a a.metal b.nonmetal c.metaloid d.halogen

39 1. Which of the following sequences is correct for atomic size? a.Mg > Al > S b.Li > Na > K c.F > N > B d.F > Cl > Br 6.3 Section Quiz

40 2. Metals tend to a.gain electrons to form cations. b.gain electrons to form anions. c.lose electrons to form anions. d.lose electrons to form cations.

41 6.3 Section Quiz 3. Which of the following is the most electronegative? a.Cl b.Se c.Na d.I

42 6.3 Section Quiz 4. How does the size of a barium ion compare with the size of a barium atom? a.The ion is smaller because it has fewer electrons b.The ion is smaller because it has more electrons c.The ion is larger because it has fewer electrons d.The ion is larger because it has more electrons

43 6.3 Section Quiz 5. Which ion has the largest radius? a.Na + b.Mg 2+ c.K + d.Ca 2+

44 6.3 Section Quiz 6. Which of the following is the most electronegative? a.Cl b.Se c.Na d.I

45 6.3 Section Quiz 7. Which element has the highest first ionization energy? a.sodium b.aluminum c.calcium d.phosphorus

46 6.3 Section Quiz 9. Properties of metals include a.Low ionization energy and high electronegativity b.Low ionization energy and low electronegativity c.High ionization energy and high electronegativity d.High ionization energy and low electronegativity

47 6.3 Section Quiz 10. An element has a 1 st ionization energy of 1314KJ/mol and an electronegativity of 3.5. It is classified as a a.metal b.nonmetal c.metaloid d.halogen

48 END OF SHOW


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