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Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

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Presentation on theme: "Atoms, Molecules, and Ions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
Chapter 2

2 Atomic Theory and the Structure of the Atom

3 Democritus Greek era All matter consists of very small, indivisible particles, which he named atomos

4 Lavoisier Law of conservation of mass

5 Proust Law of definite proportions

6 Dalton Law of multiple proportions and the first model of the atom

7 Concept Review The atoms of elements A (blue) and B (orange) form two compounds shown here. Do these compounds obey the law of multiple proportions? Yes, the ratio of atoms represented by B that combine with A in these two compounds is (2/1):(5/2) or 4:5

8 Radiation

9 Cathode Ray Tube Evacuated tube Anode Cathode Battery − +
The electric current creates the cathode ray (invisible) which spans the whole length of the tube. Its only visible because of the coating on the inside of the tube Battery

10 α β ϒ

11 J.J. Thomson Charge to mass ratio and the Plum-Pudding Model
Thomson found the mass to charge ratio of the beam particles to be ~2000 times smaller than that observed for Hydrogen ions. This result suggested that the particles were either extremely highly charged, or were much lighter than the lightest element, Hydrogen.

12 R.A. Millikan Millikan Oil Drop An atomizer produces fine oil droplets
The oil droplets fall through a hole in the first chamber as a stream of tiny droplets X-rays negatively charge the oil droplets An applied voltage on two plates surrounding the oil droplets creates an electric field. The electric force pulls some droplets upward The rate at which the oil droplets are falling and rising between the two charged plates is measured through a microscope

13 Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment

14 Bohr Planetary Model

15 Schrödinger Quantum Mechanical Model

16 Chadwick The Neutron

17 Atomic Symbols

18 Isotopes Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 Hydrogen-3

19 The Periodic Table

20 Molecules Diatomic HCl CO

21 Molecules Polyatomic O3 H2O CO2 NH3

22 Compound Molecular Compound H2O NH3 CO2 HCl CO
Binary Molecular Compound

23 Compound Ionic Compound

24 Chemical Formulas C2H5 C4H10 Butane Molecular formula
Empirical formula Butane C2H5 C4H10

25 Nomenclature Organic compounds

26 Nomenclature Inorganic compounds: Ionic Compounds NaCl Mn2O3
sodium chloride Mn2O3 manganese(III) oxide

27 Nomenclature Inorganic compounds: Binary Molecular Compounds NO2
nitrogen dioxide Greek Prefixes N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide

28 Nomenclature Summary

29 Nomenclature Inorganic compounds: Acids Anion: chloride
Acid: hydrochloric acid Anion: chlorate Acid: chloric acid Anion: chlorite Acid: chlorous acid

30 Book: Figure 2.15

31 Nomenclature Inorganic compounds: Bases
*Named like ionic compounds; cation followed by anion with “–ide” NaOH Sodium Hydroxide Mg(OH)2 Magnesium Hydroxide

32 Nomenclature Inorganic compounds: Hydrates CuSO4  5H2O Ionic compound
Greek prefix Copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate

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