Presentation on theme: "Intro to Bonding: Ionic Compounds (Type 1 and 2 Binary Compounds)"— Presentation transcript:
Intro to Bonding: Ionic Compounds (Type 1 and 2 Binary Compounds)
What is a bond? A bond is a force that holds groups of two or more atoms together. For Example: – Water (H 2 O) A water molecule is held together by two bonds: a bond between both H-O
Types of bonds There are 3 types of bonds that we are going to focus on: 1.Ionic Bonds 2.Covalent Bonds Polar Nonpolar 3.Metallic Bonds
Ionic Bonds A strong bonding force resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged ions. Ionic compounds result when a metal reacts with a nonmetal. An ionic compound contains a cation (metal) and an anion (nonmetal). Example: – Sodium chloride (NaCl) Sodium (Na + ) is the cation (metal) Chloride (Cl - ) is the anion (nonmetal)
Ionic Bonds The metal loses an electron to form a cation. The nonmetal gains that electron from that metal to form an anion. The result is an ionic bond and the formation of an ionic compound. The ionic bond is an attraction between ions.
Ionic Bonds - Cations If we look at the periodic table, the metals are colored in green. The metals lose electrons to form positively charged cations.
Ionic Bonds - Cations Cation charge can be determined by looking at how the periodic table is organized. The alkali metals have a +1 charged cation because they donate 1 electron. The alkaline earth metals have a +2 charged cation because they donate 2 electrons. Metals in column 13 have a +3 charged cation because they donate 3 electrons. +1 +2+3 Transition metals have multiple charges
Ionic Bonds - Transition Metal Cations Transition Metals have multiple charges For example: – Lead can be Pb +2 or Pb +4 – Copper can be Cu +1 or Cu +2 – Gold can be Au +1 or Au +3 – Iron can be Fe +2 or Fe +3 – and the list goes on… +1 +2+3 Transition metals have multiple charges
Ionic Bonds – Anions If we look at the periodic table, the nonmetals are colored in purple. The nonmetals gain electrons to form negatively charged anions.
Ionic Bonds - Anions Anion charge can be determined by looking at how the periodic table is organized. The halogens have a -1 charged anion because they are able to accept 1 electron. Nonmetals in column 16 have a -2 charged anion because they are able to accept 2 electrons. Nonmetals in column 15 have a -3 charged anion because they are able to accept 3 electrons. -3-2