2 Solubility Dissolving and precipitating Ex. Tooth decay from acidsPrecipitation of salts in the kidneys which forms stonesDissolved salts in rainwaterA saturated solution is one where no more solute can dissolve in solutionSolubility equationsBaSO4(s) ↔ Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
3 Equilibrium Expressions and Solubility Equilibrium expresses the degree to which the solid is soluble in waterBaSO4(s) ↔ Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq)This equation indicates that at equilibrium there is a presence of all three entitiesHowever, we are only concerned with the concentration of ions in the solution, although we accept that there is some undissolved ionic compound present
4 The Solubility Product Constant Solubility varies from one ionic compound to the nextSome ionic compounds can dissolve quite significantly in water where others cannotThey are either soluble or insolubleTable 18.1, p. 561 highlights some of the solubilities of various ionic compoundsWater is always the solvent
5 Ksp – continued… AgCl(s) ↔ Ag1+(aq) + Cl1-(aq) Although an ionic compound may be considered insoluble, a small amount does actually dissolveThe equilibrium reaction would be as follows:Ionic Compound(s) ↔ Cation+(aq) + Anion-(aq)AgCl(s) ↔ Ag1+(aq) + Cl1-(aq)
6 Ksp – continued… [AgCl] The equilibrium expression is written as follows:Keq = [Ag1+] x [Cl1-][AgCl]As long as some undissolved solid is present, the concentration remains the same; it is a constantTherefore, the concentration of undissolved solid can be combined with Keq since it, too, is a constant
7 Keq x [undissolved solid] = [cation] x [anion] = Ksp Ksp – continued…Keq x [undissolved solid] = [cation] x [anion] = KspThis new constant, Ksp, is called the solubility product constantIt is equal to the product of the concentrations of the ions each raised to a power equal to the coefficient of the ion in the dissociation equationThe smaller the numerical value of Ksp, the lower the solubility of the compound
8 SummaryAny ionic solid placed in water establishes an equilibrium between its dissociated ions in solution and the solid that is undissolved. The solubility product constant is an equilibrium constant that describes the equilibrium between a solid and its ions in solution. Table 18.2, p. 562 – examine for high/low solubilities.
10 Finding Ion Concentrations in a Saturated Solution When Ksp is given, the ion concentration of either the cation or anion can be found Sample Problem 18.3 What is done to overcome the problem of not knowing either ion concentration? Questions 17, 18, p. 562.
11 One More ProblemWhat is the concentation of barium and sulfate ions in a saturated barium sulfate solution at 25°C? Ksp = 1.1 x 10-10
12 The Common Ion EffectWhen an ionic compound has reached saturation, another ionic compound can be added to increase the concentration of one of the ionsLeChatelier's principle says that when a stress is applied to an equilibrium, it re-establishes itself by adjusting its equilibrium positionThe reaction will shift to the left, resulting in more reactant (ionic compound(s)) forming
13 Common Ion Effect – continued… As long as another compound, containing either a cation or anion from the original compound, is being added, the equilibrium position will adjust itself so that Ksp does not changeOriginal – Ksp = [Pb2+] [CrO42-] = 1.8 x 10-14Adding Pb(NO3)2Revised – Ksp = [Pb2+][CrO42-] = 1.8 x 10-14
14 DefinitionsA common ion is the cation or anion that is found in both ionic compounds (salts) in a solutionCommon ion effect is the lowering of the solubility of an ionic compound as a result of the addition of a common ionSpectator ions are those that do not participate in the reaction. They stay in solution and do not precipitate
15 PrecipitatesKsp can be used to determine whether a precipitate will form when solutions are mixedIf the product of the concentration of two ions (Qsp) in the mixture is greater than the Ksp of the compound formed from the ions, a precipitate will form
16 Example Ex. Ksp of BaSO4 = 1.1 x 10-10 Ba(NO3)2 = 0.50L, 0.002M Na2SO4 = 0.50L, 0.008MPossible precipitate = Ba(SO4)2The product of the ions barium and sulfate has to exceed the KspBecause they are mixed, the concentrations are cut in half, so…
17 Precipitate Example…Ba(NO3)2 = 0.001M (mol/L) Na2SO4 = 0.004M (mol/L) [Ba2+] = 0.001M [SO42-] = 0.004M Qsp = [Ba2+] x [SO42-] =(0.001M) x (0.004M)=4 x 10-6 Ksp = 1.1 x Does a precipitate form?
18 Finding Equilibrium Ion Concentration Using a Common Ion Work through Sample Problem 18.4, p Questions 19, 20, p. 564 Questions 21 – 28, p. 565 Section 18.3 Review