Presentation on theme: "Chemical Formulas I. Ionic Substances – a.k.a. salts A.Profile 1.Made of metal ( cation / +) and a nonmetal ( anion/ - ) 2.Form crystal lattices that are."— Presentation transcript:
Chemical Formulas I. Ionic Substances – a.k.a. salts A.Profile 1.Made of metal ( cation / +) and a nonmetal ( anion/ - ) 2.Form crystal lattices that are brittle, will cleave or break along crystal planes 3.High melting points 4.Dissolve in water to create ions which conduct electricity.
B. Writing formulas 1. Write the symbols for the cation, then the anion 2.Find the charges for each using the periodic table for the cations and your reference chart for the anions Things to Note: 3.The number of electrons lost must equal the number of electrons gained. Place subscripts next to the cation and anion which will make the total number of electrons the same. *Technique : The Switcheroo : Use the charge on the cation as the subscript for the anion and visa versa. 4.Reduce the numbers if possible. Always use the lowest whole number ratios
C.Naming Formulas 1. Write the name of the cation and the name of the anion. 2.If the anion is from the periodic table, change the ending to – ide 3.Use a Roman numeral to indicate the charge on transition metals, with multiple charges. Refer to your agenda periodic tables for examples. Use the reverse switcheroo to determine the charge if needed.
per + ate1 more O Home base ending -ate----------------- -ite1 less O hypo + ite2 less O Polyatomic Diversity A ny home base anion from your chart, your text, your homework, your ingredient labels or anywhere around the world, can be represented in all four ways by adjusting the name or number of O in the formula !
3-2: Name the following substances. 1. FeSO3 : 12. CuCH3COO: 2. Cu(NO3)2: 13. N2O4: 3. Hg2Cl2: 14. Rb3P 4. AgBr: 15. S8 5. KClO3: 16. Fe2O3 6. MgCO3: 17. (NH4)2SO3 7. BaO2: 18. Ca(MnO4)2 8. KO2: 19. PF5 9. SnO2: 20. LiH 10. Pb(OH)2: 21. Ti(HPO4)2 11. Ni3(PO4)2: iron II sulfite copper II nitrate mercury I chloride silver bromide potassium chlorate magnesium carbonate barium peroxide potassium superoxide tin IV oxide lead II hydroxide nickel II phosphate copper I acetate dinitrogen tetra oxide rubidium phosphide sulfur molecule iron III oxide ammonium sulfite phosphorus pentafluoride lithium hydride titanium IV mono hydrogen phosphate calcium permanganate
3-3: Write formulas for the following substances. 1. vanadium V oxide 12. tin II carbonate 2. dihydrogen monoxide 13. sodium hydrogen carbonate 3. ammonium oxalate 14. manganese VII oxide 4. polonium IV thiocyanate 15. copper II dihydrogen phosphate 5. tetraphosphorus decaoxide 16. francium dichromate 6. zinc hydroxide 17. calcium carbide 7. potassium cyanide 18. mercury I nitrate 8. cesium tartrate 19. cerium IV benzoate 9. oxygen molecule 20. potassium hydrogen phthalate 10. mercury II acetate 11. silver chromate V2O5 H2O (NH4)2C2O4 Po (SCN)6 P4O1 0 Zn(OH)2 KCN Cs2C4H4O6 O2O2 Hg(C2H3O2)2 Ag2CrO4
II.Molecular Substances – A.Profile 1.Made of nonmetals only ( no charges!) 2.Found as solids, liquids or gases ( no crystal lattices) 3.Low melting points 4.Do not dissolve in water or conduct electricity
B.Writing formulas 1. Write the symbols for the elements present in the order they appear. 2.Use subscripts to indicate the number of atoms of each element present as indicated by the prefixes in the name a. Prefixes 1 -mono2-di3-tri4-tetra5-penta6-hexa 7-hepta8-octa9-nona10-deca11-undeca12-dodeca 3. Do not reduce the numbers for the subscripts. These represent the minimum number of atoms needed for the substance in question.
C.Naming formulas 1. Write the name of each of the elements in the compound in the order they appear. 2.Change the ending of the last element to -ide 3. Use the prefixes to indicate the number of atoms present. If there is an o vowel repeated then only include it once 4. Do not use mono on the first element
III.Acidic Substances – A. Profile 1.Made of mostly nonmetals, hydrogen is always present and usually is at the beginning or end of the formula 2.Dissolves in water to produce H+ ions and anions 3.Covalently bonded polyatomic ions, ionic bonds with H 4.Named as ionic substances with a twist Acid change (The twist) -ate-ic + acid -ite-ous + acid -ide The acid phrase that pays: Say it with me now! ate to ic, ite to ous, ide to hydro,ic acid. Again! Anion ending Hydro + ic + acid
IV. Organic Substances A.Profile 1.Always contain carbon and hydrogen, may also include other elements 2.Covalently bonded chains, rings or small molecules 3.Classified according to # or carbons, bond type and/or functional groups attached
a.Prefixes = # of carbons meth = 1eth = 2 prop = 3 but = 4 pent = 5 hex = 6 hept = 7 oct = 8 non = 9 dec = 10 b.alkanes : simplest organic compounds – only single bonds i.Cn H2n+2 ii.–ane ending
c.alkene : 1 or more double bond in structure i.Cn H2n( only works for one double bond) ii. –ene ending
d. alkyne : 1 or more triple bonds in structure i.Cn H2n-2 ii.–yne ending
e.alcohol : hydroxide group attached somewhere i.follows pattern for alk designation ii.anol ending – single bonds iii.enol ending – double bonds iv.ynol ending – triple bonds
***Identify substituents attached to the molecule by location, quantity and alphabetically by name. ( These changes will take place at the beginning of the name/formula Chains of one or more carbon ( methyl,ethyl,propyl,butyl,pentyl&..) Halogens ( chloro,bromo,iodo,fluoro)
What if…….there is a ring ? Cyclo should preceed the name What if there are double, triple bonds ? Identify which carbon they are on, by counting from the end closest to the substituent.
What if there are multiple double or triple bonds? Identify which carbon they are on by counting from the end closest to the first one and keep numbering from then on. What if there are other atoms attached and multiple bonds? Number the carbons based on the location of the multiple bond and use those numbers to identify the locations of the other atoms attached.
What if there are attachments and more than one multiple bond? Number the carbons based on the location of the first multiple bond and indicate the attachments first, then the location of the multiple bonds by number and with a prefix tucked into the final part of the name.