11Ions of Transition Metals Many of the transition metals form more than one cation with different ionic chargesNot all transition metals have more than one chargeCharges must be determined from the number of electrons lostThese colorful solutions contain the transition metal ions Co3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Ni2+, and Mn2+.
12Two Methods to Name Transition Metal Ions Stock SystemClassical MethodIUPAC – International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
13Stock System Preferred method of naming A Roman numeral in parentheses is placed after the name of the element to indicate the numerical value of the chargeNumberRoman Numeral1I2II3III4IV5V6VI
14Stock System Naming Practice Ion Formed# Electrons LostStock NameCu+1Copper (I) ionCu2+2Copper (II) ionPb2+Lead (II) ionPb4+4Lead (IV) ion
15Classical MethodIn the past, scientists used the Latin names of elements.Example:Ferrum is Latin for Iron.Ferr- is the root of this word.Iron forms two ions: Fe2+ and Fe3+Ion names:Fe2+ is the ferrous ionFe3+ is the ferric ion
18Polyatomic Ions What does the prefix poly mean? MANYPolyatomic ions are composed of more than one atomTightly bound groups of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a chargeThe names of most polyatomic ions end in –ite or –ateDifferent EndingsAmmonium NH4+Cyanide CN-Hydroxide OH-
24I only II only III only I and III 1. Which of the following are positively charged polyatomic ions? (I) ammonium ion (II) perchlorate ion (III) iron (II) ionI onlyII onlyIII onlyI and III
252. If the name of an ion ends in -ite or -ate, the ion is a polyatomic cation.polyatomic anion.transition metal cation.monatomic anion.
26Section 9.2: Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Read pages
27Different Types of Ionic Compounds Simple Ionic Compounds (last chapter!)Ionic Compounds Involving Transition MetalsTransition metals with only 1 chargeTransition metals with more than 1 possible chargeIonic Compounds Involving Polyatomic Ions
28Binary Ionic Compounds What does the prefix bi mean?TWOA binary ionic compound is composed of two elements - a metal and a nonmetal
29Naming Binary Ionic Compounds If you know the formula of the ionic compound, you can write the nameTo name any binary ionic compound, place the cation name first, followed by the anion name.
30Naming Simple Ionic Compounds (last chapter) 1 Metal + 1 NonmetalCaCl2What is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?CalciumChloride
31Naming Simple Ionic Compounds (last chapter) 1 Metal + 1 NonmetalLi2OWhat is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?LithiumOxide
32ZnS Zinc Sulfide WAIT! What’s special about the cation? Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a Transition Metal with ONE possible charge1 Transition Metal + 1 NonmetalZnSWAIT! What’s special about the cation?Zinc is a transition metal. It has 1 possible charge.What is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?We don’t need a Roman numeral because there is only 1 possible charge!ZincSulfide
33Cu2O Oxide Copper (I) What’s special about the cation? Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a Transition Metal with more than one possible charge1 Transition Metal + 1 NonmetalCu2OWhat’s special about the cation?Copper is a transition metal. It has two possible charges (+1 or +2).What is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?Don’t forget the roman numeral!!! (based on oxygen’s charge)What is the charge on an oxygen ion?Copper (I)Oxide2-
34CuO Copper (II) Oxide What is the name of the cation? Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a Transition Metal with more than one possible charge1 Transition Metal + 1 NonmetalCuOWhat is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?Copper (II)Oxide
35NaF FeCl3 FeCl2 Sodium Fluoride Iron (III) Chloride Iron (II) Chloride Try It!Name the following binary ionic compounds:NaFFeCl3FeCl2Sodium FluorideIron (III) ChlorideIron (II) Chloride
36Writing Binary Ionic Formulas If you know the name of a binary ionic compound, you can write the formula!Write the symbol of the cation and then the anion. Then, add the subscripts that are needed to balance the charges.The positive charge of the cation must balance the negative charge of the anion so that the net ionic charge of the compound is neutral.
37Remember the crisscross method? Determine the charge on each ion.Cross the charges.Reduce if necessary.Name the compound.
38Simple Ionic Compounds Formulas Write the formula for Sodium Bromide.First: What is the cation?Second: What is the anion?-+NaBrNaBr
39Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals Write the formula for Iron (III) Oxide.First: What is the cation?Second: What is the anion?3+2-FeOFe2O3
41What is a polyatomic ion? Tightly bound groups of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a charge
42Polyatomic Ions behave as a UNIT. You CANNOT change the charge or the number of atoms of each element in a polyatomic ion or you will change the identity of that ion!!ClO – HypochloriteClO2 – ChloriteClO3 – ChlorateClO4 – Perchlorate
43Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions To name a compound containing a polyatomic ion, state the cation first, and then the anion.Just like naming binary ionic compounds!Except you DO NOT change the anion name!
44Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Example CaSO4What’s special about the anion?SO4 is a polyatomic ion.What is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?CalciumSulfate
45Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Example AlPO4What is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?AluminumPhosphate
46Naming Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Example NaCH3COOWhat is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?SodiumAcetate
47Be aware – you can’t forget about your transition metals! CuSiO3SiO32- iscalled silicateWhat is the name of the cation?What is the name of the anion?Copper (II)Silicate
48Writing the Formula of a Compound Containing a Polyatomic Ion Remember: Polyatomic ions behave as a unit.You cannot change the assigned subscript.Write the symbol for the cation, followed by the formula for the polyatomic ion, then balance the charges. Use parentheses.
49Writing Formulas w/ Polyatomic Ions Example Write the formula for Aluminum Chromate.2-3+CrO4AlAl2(CrO4)3
50Writing Formulas w/ Polyatomic Ions Example Write the formula for Ammonium Sulfide.2-+NH4S(NH4)2S
51Writing Formulas w/ Polyatomic Ions Example Write the formula for Ammonium Sulfate.2-+SO4NH4(NH4)2SO4
52Remember – there can still be compounds with transition metals! Write the formula for Tin (II) Cyanide.-2+CNSnSn(CN)2
54Ionic Name cation (name stays same) Name anion (ending in –ide) That is a representative metal or transition metal with only 1 chargeName cation(name stays same)Name anion(ending in –ide)Name cation(use roman numerals)Name anion(ending in –ide)That is a transition metal with multiple possible chargesName cation(see above)Name anion(polyatomic name)Bonded to a polyatomic ion
55Tin (IV) sulfide Magnesium nitrate Calcium bromide Sodium hydroxide Try It!Write the formulas of the following binary ionic compounds:Tin (IV) sulfideMagnesium nitrateCalcium bromideSodium hydroxideSnS2Mg(NO3)2CaBr2NaOH
61Page 258 #8 and Page 266 #17-19Write the symbol for the ion of each element. Classify the ion as an anion or cation, and name the ion.Write the formulas of the following compounds:Beryllium ChlorideCesium SulfidePotassiumSodium IodideOxygenStrontium OxideTin (2 electrons lost)Write the formulas of these polyatomic compounds:BromineBerylliumChromium (III) nitrateCobalt (3 electrons lost)Sodium perchlorateWrite the symbol or formula (including charge) for each of the following ions.Magnesium hydrogen carbonateCalcium acetateIdentify any incorrect formulas and explain your reasoning.Ammonium ionTin (II) ionMg2(SO4)3Chromate ionRb3AsNitrate ionBeCl3NaF
62#8 – Write the symbol for the ion of each element #8 – Write the symbol for the ion of each element. Classify the ion as an anion or cation, and name the ion.Potassium K+, cation, PotassiumOxygen O2-, anion, OxideTin (2 electrons lost) Sn2+, cation, Tin (II)Bromine Br-, anion, BromideBeryllium Be2+, cation, BerylliumCobalt (3 electrons lost) Co3+, cation, Cobalt (III)
63Ammonium ion NH4+ Tin (II) ion Sn2+ Chromate ion CrO42- #9 – Write the symbol or formula (including charge) for each of the following ions.Ammonium ion NH4+Tin (II) ion Sn2+Chromate ion CrO42-Nitrate ion NO3-
64#17 – Write the formula for these binary compounds. Beryllium ChlorideCesium SulfideSodium IodideStrontium OxideBeCl2Cs2SNaISrO
65#18 – Write the formula these compounds containing polyatomic ions. Chromium (III) nitrateSodium PerchlorateMagnesium hydrogen carbonateCalcium acetateCr(NO3)3NaClO4Mg(HCO3)2Ca(C2H3O2)2 or Ca(CH3COO)2
66#19 – Identify any incorrect formulas. Explain your answer. Mg2(SO4)3Rb3AsBeCl3NaFShould be MgSO4Should be BeCl2
67Section 9.3: Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds Read pages
68Binary Molecular Compounds A binary molecular compound is composed of two elements – both are nonmetalsBinary molecular compounds do not contain ions – they are made of…moleculesDon’t use ionic charges to name or write formulas
69Carbon and oxygen combine to form carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2), but these two invisible gases are very different. Sitting in a room with small amounts of CO2 in the air would not present any problems. If the same amount of CO were in the room, you could die of asphyxiation. A naming system that distinguishes between these two compounds is needed.
70Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Use prefixesThe prefix in the name of a binary molecular compound tells how many atoms of each element are present in each molecule of the compound
71Steps for Naming a Binary Molecular Compound Confirm that the compound is a binary molecular compound.Name the elements in the order that they appear in the formulaUse prefixes to indicate the number of each kind of atom.The name of the first element stays the same. The ending of the second element changes to –ide.
72Quick Example – Add it to your notes! S2Br4disulfurtetrabromide
73Special RulesIf there is only one atom of the first element in the formula, drop the mono-If the element begins with a vowel, drop the vowel on the end of the prefix.CCl4 is called carbon tetrachloride, NOT monocarbon tetrachloride.Exceptions: Di- and Tri-CO is called carbon monoxide, NOT carbon monooxide.
74Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Example 1 N2Odinitrogenmonoxide
75Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Example 2 Cl2O8dichlorineoctoxide
76CBr4 N2H4 PCl5 S2F10 Try It! Carbon tetrabromide Write the names of the following binary molecular compounds:CBr4N2H4PCl5S2F10Carbon tetrabromideDinitrogen tetrahydridePhosphorus pentachlorideDisulfur decafluoride
77Writing Formulas for Binary Molecular Compounds Use the prefixes in the name to tell you the subscript of each element in the formula. Then, write the correct symbols for the two elements with the appropriate subscripts.
78Writing Formulas for Binary Molecular Compounds Example 1 Dinitrogen trioxideNO23
79Writing Formulas for Binary Molecular Compounds Example 2 Iodine heptafluorideIF7
81Ionic Covalent Name compound using prefixes Name cation Second element ends in -ideThat is a representative metal or transition metal with only 1 chargeName cation(name stays same)Name anion(ending in –ide)That is a transition metal with multiple possible chargesName cation(use roman numerals)Name anion(ending in –ide)Name cation(see above)Name anion(polyatomic name)Bonded to a polyatomic ion
831. Which of the following compounds is named INCORRECTLY? CS2, carbon disulfideBCl3, boron trichlorideIF7, iodine heptafluoridePCl5, phosphorus hexachloride
842. Which of the following molecular compounds is named INCORRECTLY? SbCl3, antimony trichlorideC2O5, dicarbon pentoxideCF4, carbon tetrafluorideH3S, hydrogen sulfide
853. The correct formula for tetraphosphorus trisulfide is P3S4S3P4P4S3S4P3
86Section 9.4: Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases Read pages
87Naming AcidsAcid - a compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in waterHydrogen is most commonly listed first in the compoundFormula: HnXNOTE: Acids do not have to have hydrogen first, but usually do.
88Dependent on the anion (the non hydrogen part) Rules for Naming AcidsThree rulesDependent on the anion (the non hydrogen part)
89Rule #1When the name of the anion ends in –ide, the acid name begins with hydro-. The stem of the anion has the suffix –ic and is followed by acid.Simply – if there is no oxygen in the acid formula, the formula for the name is hydro-root-ic acid.ExampleHClCation – HydrogenAnion – ChlorideName of Acid – Hydrochloric Acid
90Rule #2When the anion name ends in –ite, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix –ous followed by the word acid.Formula for name: Root-ous acidExampleHClO2Cation – HydrogenAnion – ChloriteName of Acid – Chlorous acid
91Rule #3When the anion name ends in –ate, the acid name is the stem of the anion with the suffix –ic followed by the word acid.Formula for name: Root-ic acidExampleHClO3Cation – HydrogenAnion – ChlorateName of Acid – Chloric acid
93Practice Problems PO33- is phosphite Name the following acids: H2SO3 Sulfurous AcidHNO3Nitric AcidHBrHydrobromic AcidH3PO3Phosphorous AcidPO33- is phosphite
94Writing Formulas for Acids Use the rules in reverseExample:Write the formula for hydrocyanic acid.Hydro-root-ic acid means the anion ends in –ide.The cation is Hydrogen (H+).The anion is Cyanide (CN-).The formula for the acid is HCN.
95Practice Problems CO22- is carbonite Write the formulas for the following acids:Hydroiodic acidHICarbonic acidH2CO3Carbonous acidH2CO2Acetic acidHC2H3O2CO22- is carbonite
96Names and Formulas of Bases Base – a compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in waterNamed the same way as an ionic compound: Name of cation, then name of anion.Anion is usually hydroxide (OH-) but it does not have to be.Example:NaOHCation: SodiumAnion: HydroxideName of Base: Sodium Hydroxide
97Try it!Provide the appropriate name or formula of the following bases:Potassium hydroxideKOHBe(OH)2Beryllium HydroxideRbOHRubidium HydroxideAluminum hydroxideAl(OH)3
98This is an example of a base that does NOT contain a hydroxide ion. A base to take note of:NH3 is ammonia.This is an example of a base that does NOT contain a hydroxide ion.
100Ionic Acid Covalent Name compound using prefixes Name cation That is a representative metal or transition metal with only 1 chargeName compound using prefixes(second element ends in –ide)Name cation(name stays same)Name anion(ending in –ide)Does not contain any oxygen(Anion ends in –ide)That is a transition metal with multiple possible chargesName cation(use roman numerals)Name anion(ending in –ide)Hydro(root)ic acidName cation(see above)Name anion(polyatomic name)Bonded to a polyatomic ionAnion ends in -ite(Root)ous acidIf the anion is hydroxide (OH-) then you have a baseAnion ends in -ate(Root)ic acid
107Write the names of the following compounds: The name a student gives for the molecular compound SiCl4 is monosilicon trichloride. Is this name correct? Explain.NCl3BCl3Nl3Write the formulas or names of the following compounds:CS2Carbon tetrabromideCl2O7Diphosphorus trioxideWrite the molecular formulas of the following compounds:Phosphorus pentachlorideIodine heptafluorideChlorine trifluorideIodine dioxideSO3N2H4N2O3Name the following acids:HNO2HMnO4HCNH2SName the following bases:LiOHPb(OH)2Mg(OH)2Al(OH)3Write formulas for each of the following acids and bases:Carbonic acidSulfurous acidIron (III) hydroxideStrontium hydroxide
108#22 – Write the names for these molecular compounds. NCl3BCl3Nl3SO3N2H4N2O3Nitrogen trichlorideBoron trichlorideNitrogen triodideSulfur trioxideDinitrogen tetrahydrideDinitrogen trioxide
109#23 – Write the formulas or names for these molecular compounds. CS2Carbon tetrabromideCl2O7Diphosphorus trioxideCarbon disulfideCBr4Dichlorine heptoxideP2O3
110#24 – Write the formulas for these binary molecular compounds. Phosphorus pentachlorideIodine heptafluorideChlorine trifluorideIodine dioxidePCl5IF7ClF3IO2
111Silicon tetrachloride #25 – The name a student gives for the molecular compound SiCl4 is monosilicon trichloride. Is this name correct? Explain.Silicon tetrachloride
112#29 – Give the names of these acids. Nitrous acidPermanganic acidHydrocyanic acidHydrosulfuric acidHNO2HMnO4HCNH2S
113#30 – Write the names of these bases. LiOHPb(OH)2Mg(OH)2Al(OH)3Lithium hydroxideLead (II) hydroxideMagnesium hydroxideAluminum hydroxide
114#32 – Write the formulas of the following acids and bases: Carbonic acidSulfurous acidIron (III) hydroxideStrontium hydroxideH2CO3H2SO3Fe(OH)3Sr(OH)2
115Section 9.5: The Laws Governing Formulas and Names Read pages
116The Laws Governing Formulas and Names The rules for naming and writing formulas are possible because elements form compounds in predictable ways.Two Important LawsThe Law of Definite ProportionsThe Law of Multiple Proportions
117The Law of Definite Proportions States that in samples of any chemical compound, the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions.So what does that mean?
118Law of Definite Proportions Continued WaterWhat is the formula for water? H2OWhat is the atomic mass of Oxygen?16.00What is the atomic mass of Hydrogen?1.00What is the mass ratio of Oxygen to Hydrogen in water?16:2 which reduces to 8:1Hydrogen PeroxideDihydrogen DioxideWhat is the formula for hydrogen peroxide?H2O2What is the mass ratio of Oxygen to Hydrogen in water?32:2 which reduces to 16:1Regardless of how much you have, the ratio of masses is always the same!
119Both water and hydrogen peroxide are composed of hydrogen and oxygen… Both water and hydrogen peroxide are composed of hydrogen and oxygen…. But they have different properties.
120Law of Multiple Proportions Whenever the same two elements form more than one compound, the different masses of one element that combine with the same mass of the other element are in the ratio of small whole numbers.Two Compounds(X and Y) contain equal masses of Element B. The ratio of the masses of Element A in these compounds is 5:10 or 1:2.
121Main Idea:In any chemical compound, the elements are always in the same proportion by MASS.
122Guidelines for Writing the Chemical Formula of a Compound An –ide ending generally indicates a binary compound.An –ite or –ate ending means a polyatomic ion that contains oxygen is in the formula.Prefixes in a name generally indicate that the compound is molecular.A Roman numeral after the name of a cation shows the charge of the cation.
123Naming Review H in front of the formula? It’s an acid! OH in the formula? It’s a base! (Ionic name)Metal present? It’s ionic!Check to see if you have a transition metal with multiple charges.Only nonmetals? It’s covalent!
124Dinitrogen tetrahydride Naming PracticeFormulaNameIonic or Molecular?Sodium chlorideBrF3LiNO3Dinitrogen tetrahydridePotassium hydroxideRb2OHydrofluoric acid
125Naming Practice Answers FormulaNameIonic or Molecular?NaClSodium chlorideIonicBrF3Bromine trifluorideMolecularLiNO3Lithium nitrateN2H4Dinitrogen tetrahydrideKOHPotassium hydroxideRb2ORubidium oxideHFHydrofluoric acid