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Nomenclature Ionic Bonding

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1 Nomenclature Ionic Bonding
Thursday - Day 3 Notes

2 Video Clip on How Atoms Bond: IONIC COMPOUNDS
Click the link below to watch the video: Video Clip on How Atoms Bond: IONIC COMPOUNDS

3 Quick Review _Ions_____ - atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons. __cation___ – positively charged ion _____anion___ – negatively charged ion The charge on the ion is known as the ___oxidation number____ __Polyatomic ion____ – ion consisting of two or more atoms

4 Practice - write the ion with the charge for the following elements
* Li * Ca * H * Be * Si * K * Al * S * O * Na * Fr * N * F * Cl * P + 2+ + 2+ +-4 + 3+ 2- 2- + + 3- - - 3-

5 NOTES #2: Binary Ionic Chemical Names and Formulas
Ionic bonds are formed between a metal and a nonmetal OR cation + anion. The bond involves the transfer of electrons from the metal to the nonmetal. The electron is transferred from the cation to the anion so that both atoms have a complete valence shell (usually 8 electrons in valance). The overall charge of ionic compounds must equal zero.


7 Naming Ionic Compounds
* First name the cation and then the anion. (metal) (nonmetal) * Change the ending of the anion to –ide. Example: MgCl magnesium chloride Li2S _________________________ Lithium sulfide

8 Magnesium oxide Potassium phosphide Cesium chloride Barium nitride
MgO _________________________ K3P ________________________ CsCl ________________________ Ba3N2 ________________________ Potassium phosphide Cesium chloride Barium nitride Practice

9 DRAWING Lewis Dot Structures for Ionic Compounds
The overall charge on the compound must equal zero, that is, the number of electrons lost by one atom must equal the number of electrons gained by the other atom. The Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) of each ion is used to construct the Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) for the ionic compound. The Lewis Dot structures show the location of the valence electrons after the electrons have been transferred. Examples: Lithium fluoride • Lithium atom loses one electron to form the cation Li+ • Fluorine atom gains one electron to form the anion F- • Lithium fluoride compound can be represented as Remember the Octet rule….

10 DRAWING Lewis Dot Structures for Ionic Compounds
Draw the Lewis structure of Lithium oxide. What would be the chemical formula for this compound?

11 Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds
Balance When given two ions, __________________ the charges and make them the ___________________. Do NOT keep the +/- signs _______________ subscripts if possible This means we must reduce the subscripts if they have a common denominator. Example: Ca4F8 subscripts Reduce CaF2

12 Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds
A. Using Balanced charges Method: B. Using the Crisscross method: **Sum of charges must equal zero. Example: Li+1 O-2 Ex: Na+1 + Cl-1  NaCl ( = 0) b. Mg+2 + O-2  MgO * ( = 0) * Don’t write this Mg2O2 because it must be reduced. Now, let’s use the name to write the chemical formula Name cation anion formula Lewis Dot Structure Lithium oxide _______ _______ _____________ Li+1 O-2 Li2O Li+1

13 Important Facts about Ionic Compounds
We use subscripts to represent the number of each ion. Al2O3 2 Aluminum Ions and 3 Oxide Ions

14 Mg2+ and P3- Mg2+ and P3- Mg2+ P3- Mg2+ Mg2+ P3- Mg3P2
For example 2…Change it from Magnesium sulfide to Magnesium phosphide A. Using Balanced charges Method: B. Using the Crisscross method: Mg and P3- Mg and P3- Mg2+ P3- Mg2+ Mg S 2 6+ 6- = 0 Name cation anion formula Lewis Dot Structure Magnesium phosphide ______ _______ ____________ Mg2+ P3- Mg3P2

15 Homework: Page 9 For added help: watch this video
And use your periodic table!!!!

16 Notes 3: Binary Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals (Multivalent cations)
Multivalent Cations are found mostly in the group B elements. (the middle of the periodic table) They should know these already. Many of them do not remember that they are always positive though. These elements are also known as the Transition metals.

17 Roman Numeral Charge I +1 II +2 III +3 IV +4 V +5 VI +6 VII +7 VIII +8
If your cation is a transition metal, then you must specify the charge with a Roman numeral Example: Iron (III) Sulfide Just like the compounds we looked at yesterday, the sum of charges must equal zero . and we can still use the Criss-cross method when writing the chemical formula.

18 Writing & Naming Formulas with Roman Numerals Practice
Cu+ S2- Cu2S O2- MnO Mn2+ Sn4+ F- SnF4 Lead II iodide Pb2+ I- Iron III oxide Fe3+ O2- Pb4+ Lead IV oxide Cobalt III phosphide Co3+ P3-

19 Naming Ionic Compounds with Roman Numerals
If there is a transition metal (B group element) present in the formula, you will need to include a roman numeral when you name the compound. So, which metals DO NOT require a roman numeral? Al3+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ag+

20 Writing Multivalent Compounds HOMEWORK
Complete page 11 REMEMBER: How can you determine the charge or roman numeral? You will have to work backwards. And Roman Numeral = Charge of the Metal Not in the kids’ notes packets

21 Polyatomic Ions A polyatomic ion are groups of atoms that behave as one unit. They are treated like single ions in formulas, but use parenthesis when more than one is used in a formula. NEVER change name or look of polyatomic. If you change the subscripts for any part of the polyatomic, then it is no longer that same polyatomic ion. Otherwise….use all the same rules for naming and writing compounds as with any other Binary Ionic compound. EX: NH4+ is not the same as NH+ CO32- is not the same as CO22- or CO2-

22 Polyatomic Ion Practice
Formula Name Al CO3 -2 Ca NO3 -1 K ClO3 -1 Al2(CO3)3 Aluminum carbonate Ca(NO3)2 Calcium nitrate KClO3 Potassium chlorate Question: How would potassium chlorite be different? K ClO KClO2

23 Name the following compounds
Ba(OH)2 CaSO4 (NH4)3P Barium hydroxide Calcium sulfate Ammonium phosphide

24 Write the formula for the following compounds:
cation anion formula Sr2+ Strontium phosphate ________ _________ ______________ Lithium acetate ________ _________ ______________ Sodium sulfate _________ _________ ______________

25 Formula Writing for Compounds
Tips for Success Before writing any formula, Identify the type of compound. Ionic  Metal and a Nonmetal or PAI Molecular  Only Nonmetals For all ionic compounds, circle polyatomic ions.

26 Examples iron(III) nitrate Fe(NO3)3 carbon tetrachloride CCl4
sodium oxide Na2O barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 dinitrogen trioxide N2O3 ammonium carbonate (NH4)2CO3 cobalt(III) nitrite Co(NO2)3 I M I I M I I

27 Naming Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions
When you name a compound with a polyatomic ion, the polyatomic ion keeps its name. It is easy to identify a compound with a polyatomic ion because it will have more than 2 elements (more than 2 capital letters).

28 Tips for Success Before naming ANY compound,
Determine the type of compound. If the compound is molecular, remember use prefixes. If the compound is ionic, answer the following questions. Does the metal need a roman numeral? Does the compound have a polyatomic ion?

29 Examples NaHCO3 sodium hydrogen carbonate (NH4)2O ammonium oxide
FeSO4 iron(II) sulfate AgC2H3O2 silver acetate Ni(NO3)2 nickel(II) nitrate ClO chlorine monoxide AuClO3 gold(I) chlorate I I I I M I

30 Monday Bell Ringer Which of the following compounds represent trichlorine hexoxide? A. Cl3O6 B. ClO3 C. O3Cl6 Which of the following compounds represent manganese (III) oxide? A. MgO B. Mn2O3 C. Mg2O3

31 Properties of Acids Corrosive Sour Taste
React with Metals to Produce Hydrogen Gas (H+) pH less than 7 Can conduct electricity Contain H+ ions Generally found as (aq) or aqueous

32 Binary Acids Binary acids are made up of HYDROGEN + ANOTHER ELEMENT.
Example: HCl (hydrogen + chlorine) Example: H2S (hydrogen + sulfur)

33 Naming Binary Acids: 1. Prefix: hydro- 2. Element Name 3. –ic
4. Last word: “acid” Ie: hydroelementic acid

34 In Class Examples: Naming Binary Acids
HCl hydrochloric acid HF hydrofluoric acid HBr hydrobromic acid

35 Ternary Acids These acids contain a POLYATOMIC ION.
Also called oxy-acids. Example: H2SO3 = sulfurous acid

36 Naming Ternary Acids 1. Name the polyatomic ion.
2. Change PAI ending in –ate to –ic. Example: sulfate  sulfuric phosphate  phosphoric 3. Change PAI ending in –ite to –ous. Example: sulfite  sulfurous phosphite  phosphorous 4. Last word is “acid”.

37 In Class Examples of Naming Ternary Acids:
H2 SO4 sulfuric acid H2 CO3 carbonic acid HNO2 nitrous acid H3PO4 phosphoric acid

38 Writing Acid Formulas You do not have notes on this- we will practice in a minute!  Always begins with Hydrogen! Hydrogen = H+ You will then follow the same process as you would an IONIC compound! Example: hydrochloric acid = H+ and Cl- = HCl Example: sulfuric acid = H+ and SO42- = H2SO4

39 Writing Acid Formulas:
Tips: 1. Your first element is ALWAYS H+ 2. Identify if it is a BINARY acid or TERNARY acid. - begins with hydro- and ends in –ic? (1 element!) - no hydro- prefix, or ends in –ous? (PAI!)

I’ll make a SMART board notebook, you will probably want to do it on the overhead. Exit Ticket will be the page in the notes titled “In Class Practice for Nomenclature of Acids.” Darla just ed out a homework that I’ll probably use! 

41 Writing Formulas for Acids
Remember your patterns. Hydro-ic acid  No oxygen X-ic acid  -ate polyatomic ion X-ous acid  - ite polyatomic ion The positive ion is always H+. The sum of the charges of the ions must add up to zero.

42 Examples hydroselenic acid H2Se phosphoric acid H3PO4 nitrous acid HNO2 sulfurous acid H2SO3 dichromic acid H2Cr2O7

43 Keys to Success Before naming ANY compound,
Identify the type of compound. Molecular? Ionic? Acid? If it is molecular, remember to use your prefixes. If it is ionic, ask yourself. Does the metal need a roman numeral? Does it contain a polyatomic ion? If it is an acid, which pattern does it follow?

44 Mixing It Up! H2CrO4 chromic acid Na2SO3 sodium sulfite
HF hydrofluoric acid P5O pentaphosphorus decoxide Fe(C2H3O2)2 iron(II) acetate ZnCl zinc chloride H3PO phosphorous acid A I A M I I A

45 Keys to Success Before writing the formula for ANY compound,
Identify the type of compound. Molecular? Ionic? Acid? If it is ionic, does it contain a polyatomic ion? If it is an acid, which pattern does it follow? No Oxygen? -ATE Polyatomic Ion? -ITE Polyatomic Ion?

46 Examples barium phosphate Ba3(PO4)2 bromic acid HBrO3
ammonium dichromate (NH4)2 Cr2O7 iron(III) sulfide Fe2S3 dichlorine heptachloride Cl2O7 hydrosulfuric acid H2S gold(III) chlorate Au(ClO3)3 I A -ate I I M A No O I

47 Puzzle Piece Activity on Writing formulas for Ionic Compounds
Work in pairs to assemble the various compounds. Let’s try the first one together. What is the compound formed between Mg and F? F- fluoride Mg2+ Magnesium A perfectly assembled compound should be a square or a rectangle. F- fluoride Metal Metal’s Charge Nonmetal Nonmetal’s Charge Picture of Puzzle Pieces Formula Name Sum of Charges Mg F magnesium fluoride +2 -1 MgF2

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