Presentation on theme: "Nomenclature Ionic Bonding"— Presentation transcript:
1Nomenclature Ionic Bonding Thursday - Day 3 Notes
2Video Clip on How Atoms Bond: IONIC COMPOUNDS Click the link below to watch the video:Video Clip on How Atoms Bond: IONIC COMPOUNDS
3Quick Review_Ions_____ - atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons.__cation___ – positively charged ion_____anion___ – negatively charged ionThe charge on the ion is known as the ___oxidation number______Polyatomic ion____ – ion consisting of two or more atoms
4Practice - write the ion with the charge for the following elements * Li * Ca * H* Be * Si * K* Al * S * O* Na * Fr * N* F * Cl * P+2++2++-4+3+2-2-++3---3-
5NOTES #2: Binary Ionic Chemical Names and Formulas Ionic bonds are formed between ametal and a nonmetal ORcation + anion.The bond involves the transfer of electrons from the metal to the nonmetal.The electron is transferred from the cation to the anion so that both atoms have a complete valence shell (usually 8 electrons in valance).The overall charge of ionic compounds must equalzero.
7Naming Ionic Compounds * First name the cation and then the anion.(metal) (nonmetal)* Change the ending of the anion to –ide.Example:MgCl magnesium chlorideLi2S _________________________Lithium sulfide
9DRAWING Lewis Dot Structures for Ionic Compounds The overall charge on the compound must equal zero, that is, the number of electrons lost by one atom must equal the number of electrons gained by the other atom.The Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) of each ion is used to construct the Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) for the ionic compound.The Lewis Dot structures show the location of the valence electrons after the electrons have been transferred.Examples: Lithium fluoride• Lithium atom loses one electron to form the cation Li+• Fluorine atom gains one electron to form the anion F-• Lithium fluoride compound can be represented asRemember the Octet rule….
10DRAWING Lewis Dot Structures for Ionic Compounds Draw the Lewis structure of Lithium oxide. What would be the chemical formula for this compound?
11Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds BalanceWhen given two ions, __________________ the charges and make them the ___________________.Do NOT keep the +/- signs_______________ subscripts if possibleThis means we must reduce the subscripts if they have a common denominator.Example: Ca4F8subscriptsReduceCaF2
12Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds A. Using Balanced charges Method:B. Using the Crisscross method:**Sum of charges must equal zero.Example: Li+1 O-2Ex:Na+1 + Cl-1 NaCl ( = 0)b. Mg+2 + O-2 MgO * ( = 0)* Don’t write this Mg2O2 because it must be reduced.Now, let’s use the name to write the chemical formulaName cation anion formula Lewis Dot StructureLithium oxide _______ _______ _____________Li+1O-2Li2OLi+1
13Important Facts about Ionic Compounds We use subscripts to represent the number of each ion.Al2O32 Aluminum Ions and 3 Oxide Ions
14Mg2+ and P3- Mg2+ and P3- Mg2+ P3- Mg2+ Mg2+ P3- Mg3P2 For example 2…Change it from Magnesium sulfide to Magnesium phosphideA. Using Balanced charges Method:B. Using the Crisscross method:Mg and P3-Mg and P3-Mg2+P3-Mg2+Mg S 26+6-= 0Name cation anion formula Lewis Dot StructureMagnesium phosphide ______ _______ ____________Mg2+P3-Mg3P2
15Homework: Page 9 For added help: watch this video And use your periodic table!!!!
16Notes 3: Binary Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals (Multivalent cations) Multivalent Cations are found mostly in the group B elements. (the middle of the periodic table)They should know these already. Many of them do not remember that they are always positive though.These elements are also known as the Transition metals.
17Roman Numeral Charge I +1 II +2 III +3 IV +4 V +5 VI +6 VII +7 VIII +8 If your cation is a transition metal, then you must specify the charge with a Roman numeral Example: Iron (III) Sulfide Just like the compounds we looked at yesterday, the sum of charges must equal zero . and we can still use the Criss-cross method when writing the chemical formula.
18Writing & Naming Formulas with Roman Numerals Practice Cu+S2-Cu2SO2-MnOMn2+Sn4+F-SnF4Lead II iodidePb2+I-Iron III oxideFe3+O2-Pb4+Lead IV oxideCobalt III phosphideCo3+P3-
19Naming Ionic Compounds with Roman Numerals If there is a transition metal (B group element) present in the formula, you will need to include a roman numeral when you name the compound.So, which metals DO NOT require a roman numeral?Al3+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ag+
20Writing Multivalent Compounds HOMEWORK Complete page 11REMEMBER:How can you determine the charge or roman numeral?You will have to work backwards.AndRoman Numeral = Charge of the MetalNot in the kids’ notes packets
21Polyatomic IonsA polyatomic ion are groups of atoms that behave as one unit.They are treated like single ions in formulas, but use parenthesis when more than one is used in a formula.NEVER change name or look of polyatomic. If you change the subscripts for any part of the polyatomic, then it is no longer that same polyatomic ion.Otherwise….use all the same rules for naming and writing compounds as with any other Binary Ionic compound.EX: NH4+ is not the same as NH+CO32- is not the same as CO22- or CO2-
22Polyatomic Ion Practice Formula NameAl CO3 -2Ca NO3 -1K ClO3 -1Al2(CO3)3Aluminum carbonateCa(NO3)2Calcium nitrateKClO3Potassium chlorateQuestion: How would potassium chlorite be different?K ClO KClO2
23Name the following compounds Ba(OH)2CaSO4(NH4)3PBarium hydroxideCalcium sulfateAmmonium phosphide
24Write the formula for the following compounds: cation anion formulaSr2+Strontium phosphate ________ _________ ______________Lithium acetate ________ _________ ______________Sodium sulfate _________ _________ ______________
25Formula Writing for Compounds Tips for SuccessBefore writing any formula,Identify the type of compound.Ionic Metal and a Nonmetal or PAIMolecular Only NonmetalsFor all ionic compounds, circle polyatomic ions.
27Naming Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions When you name a compound with a polyatomic ion, the polyatomic ion keeps its name.It is easy to identify a compound with a polyatomic ion because it will have more than 2 elements (more than 2 capital letters).
28Tips for Success Before naming ANY compound, Determine the type of compound.If the compound is molecular, remember use prefixes.If the compound is ionic, answer the following questions.Does the metal need a roman numeral?Does the compound have a polyatomic ion?
35Ternary Acids These acids contain a POLYATOMIC ION. Also called oxy-acids.Example: H2SO3 = sulfurous acid
36Naming Ternary Acids 1. Name the polyatomic ion. 2. Change PAI ending in –ate to –ic.Example: sulfate sulfuricphosphate phosphoric3. Change PAI ending in –ite to –ous.Example: sulfite sulfurousphosphite phosphorous4. Last word is “acid”.
37In Class Examples of Naming Ternary Acids: H2 SO4 sulfuric acidH2 CO3 carbonic acidHNO2 nitrous acidH3PO4 phosphoric acid
38Writing Acid FormulasYou do not have notes on this- we will practice in a minute! Always begins with Hydrogen!Hydrogen = H+You will then follow the same process as you would an IONIC compound!Example: hydrochloric acid = H+ and Cl- = HClExample: sulfuric acid = H+ and SO42- = H2SO4
39Writing Acid Formulas: Tips:1. Your first element is ALWAYS H+2. Identify if it is a BINARY acid or TERNARY acid.- begins with hydro- and ends in –ic? (1 element!)- no hydro- prefix, or ends in –ous? (PAI!)
40STOP: IN CLASS PRACTICE I’ll make a SMART board notebook, you will probably want to do it on the overhead.Exit Ticket will be the page in the notes titled “In Class Practice for Nomenclature of Acids.”Darla just ed out a homework that I’ll probably use!
41Writing Formulas for Acids Remember your patterns.Hydro-ic acid No oxygenX-ic acid -ate polyatomic ionX-ous acid - ite polyatomic ionThe positive ion is always H+.The sum of the charges of the ions must add up to zero.
43Keys to Success Before naming ANY compound, Identify the type of compound.Molecular? Ionic? Acid?If it is molecular, remember to use your prefixes.If it is ionic, ask yourself.Does the metal need a roman numeral?Does it contain a polyatomic ion?If it is an acid, which pattern does it follow?
45Keys to Success Before writing the formula for ANY compound, Identify the type of compound.Molecular? Ionic? Acid?If it is ionic, does it contain a polyatomic ion?If it is an acid, which pattern does it follow?No Oxygen?-ATE Polyatomic Ion?-ITE Polyatomic Ion?
47Puzzle Piece Activity on Writing formulas for Ionic Compounds Work in pairs to assemble the various compounds.Let’s try the first one together.What is the compound formed between Mg and F?F-fluorideMg2+MagnesiumA perfectly assembled compound should be a square or a rectangle.F-fluorideMetalMetal’sChargeNonmetalNonmetal’s ChargePicture of Puzzle PiecesFormulaNameSum of ChargesMgFmagnesium fluoride+2-1MgF2