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NOMENCLATURE IONIC BONDING Thursday - Day 3 Notes.

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Presentation on theme: "NOMENCLATURE IONIC BONDING Thursday - Day 3 Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 NOMENCLATURE IONIC BONDING Thursday - Day 3 Notes

2 VIDEO CLIPVIDEO CLIP ON HOW ATOMS BOND: IONIC COMPOUNDSON HOW ATOMS BOND: IONIC COMPOUNDS Click the link below to watch the video: -now/how-atoms-bond

3 Quick Review  _Ions_____ - atoms that have lost or gained one or more electrons.  __cation___ – positively charged ion  _____anion___ – negatively charged ion  The charge on the ion is known as the ___oxidation number____  __Polyatomic ion____ – ion consisting of two or more atoms

4 Practice - write the ion with the charge for the following elements * Li * Ca* H * Be * Si* K * Al * S* O * Na * Fr* N * F * Cl* P

5 NOTES #2: Binary Ionic Chemical Names and Formulas  Ionic bonds are formed between a metal and a nonmetal OR cation + anion.  The bond involves the transfer of electrons from the metal to the nonmetal.  The electron is transferred from the cation to the anion so that both atoms have a complete valence shell (usually 8 electrons in valance).  The overall charge of ionic compounds must equal zero.

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7 Naming Ionic Compounds * First name the cation and then the anion. (metal) (nonmetal) * Change the ending of the anion to –ide. Example: MgCl 2 magnesium chloride Li 2 S_________________________ Lithium sulfide

8 Practice MgO _________________________ K 3 P ________________________ CsCl ________________________ Ba 3 N 2 ________________________ Magnesium oxide Potassium phosphide Cesium chloride Barium nitride

9 DRAWING Lewis Dot Structures for Ionic Compounds The overall charge on the compound must equal zero, that is, the number of electrons lost by one atom must equal the number of electrons gained by the other atom. The Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) of each ion is used to construct the Lewis Structure (electron dot diagram) for the ionic compound. The Lewis Dot structures show the location of the valence electrons after the electrons have been transferred. Examples: Lithium fluoride Lithium atom loses one electron to form the cation Li+ Fluorine atom gains one electron to form the anion F- Lithium fluoride compound can be represented as Remember the Octet rule….

10 DRAWING Lewis Dot Structures for Ionic Compounds Draw the Lewis structure of Lithium oxide. What would be the chemical formula for this compound?

11 Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds When given two ions, __________________ the charges and make them the ___________________. Do NOT keep the +/- signs _______________ subscripts if possible This means we must reduce the subscripts if they have a common denominator. Example: Ca 4 F 8  Balance subscripts Reduce CaF 2

12 Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds Ex: a.Na +1 + Cl -1  NaCl ( = 0) b. Mg +2 + O -2  MgO * ( = 0) * Don’t write this Mg 2 O 2 because it must be reduced. **Sum of charges must equal zero. A. Using Balanced charges Method:B. Using the Crisscross method: Example: Li +1 O -2 Now, let’s use the name to write the chemical formula Name cation anion formula Lewis Dot Structure  Lithium oxide _______ _______ _____________ Li +1 O -2 Li 2 O Li +1

13 Important Facts about Ionic Compounds We use subscripts to represent the number of each ion. Al 2 O 3 2 Aluminum Ions and 3 Oxide Ions

14 A. Using Balanced charges Method:B. Using the Crisscross method:  Magnesium phosphide______ _______ ____________ Name cation anion formula Lewis Dot Structure Mg 2+ and P 3- Mg 2+ P = 0 Mg 2+ and P 3- Mg 3 S 2 Mg 2+ P 3- Mg 3 P 2 For example 2…Change it from Magnesium sulfide to Magnesium phosphide

15 Homework: Page 9  For added help: watch this videowatch this video  And use your periodic table!!!!

16 Notes 3: Binary Ionic Compounds with Transition Metals (Multivalent cations)  Multivalent Cations are found mostly in the group B elements. (the middle of the periodic table) These elements are also known as the Transition metals.

17 If your cation is a transition metal, then you must specify the charge with a Roman numeral. Example: Iron (III) Sulfide Just like the compounds we looked at yesterday, the sum of charges must equal zero. and we can still use the Criss-cross method when writing the chemical formula. Roman Numeral Charge I+1 II+2 III+3 IV+4 V+5 VI+6 VII+7 VIII+8

18 Writing & Naming Formulas with Roman Numerals Practice Cu+ S 2- Cu 2 S Mn 2+ O2-O2- MnO Sn 4+ F-F- SnF 4 I-I- Pb 2+ Lead II iodide O 2- Fe 3+ Iron III oxide Pb 4+ Lead IV oxide P 3- Co 3+ Cobalt III phosphide

19 Naming Ionic Compounds with Roman Numerals  If there is a transition metal (B group element) present in the formula, you will need to include a roman numeral when you name the compound.  So, which metals DO NOT require a roman numeral?  Al 3+, Zn 2+, Cd 2+ and Ag +

20 Writing Multivalent Compounds HOMEWORK  Complete page 11 REMEMBER: How can you determine the charge or roman numeral? You will have to work backwards. And Roman Numeral = Charge of the Metal

21 Polyatomic Ions  A polyatomic ion are groups of atoms that behave as one unit.  They are treated like single ions in formulas, but use parenthesis when more than one is used in a formula.  NEVER change name or look of polyatomic. If you change the subscripts for any part of the polyatomic, then it is no longer that same polyatomic ion.  Otherwise….use all the same rules for naming and writing compounds as with any other Binary Ionic compound. EX: NH 4 + is not the same as NH + CO 3 2- is not the same as CO 2 2- or CO 2-

22 Polyatomic Ion Practice FormulaName Al +3 CO 3 -2 Ca +2 NO 3 -1 K +1 ClO 3 -1 Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 Aluminum carbonate Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Calcium nitrate KClO 3 Potassium chlorate Question: How would potassium chlorite be different? K +1 ClO 2 -1 KClO 2

23 Name the following compounds Ba(OH) 2 CaSO 4 (NH 4 ) 3 P Barium hydroxide Calcium sulfate Ammonium phosphide

24 Write the formula for the following compounds: cationanionformula Strontium phosphate ________ _________ ______________ Lithium acetate ________ _________ ______________ Sodium sulfate _________ _________ ______________ Sr 2+

25 Formula Writing for Compounds Tips for Success  Before writing any formula,  Identify the type of compound. Ionic  Metal and a Nonmetal or PAI Molecular  Only Nonmetals  For all ionic compounds, circle polyatomic ions.

26 Examples  iron(III) nitrateFe(NO 3 ) 3  carbon tetrachlorideCCl 4  sodium oxideNa 2 O  barium hydroxideBa(OH) 2  dinitrogen trioxideN 2 O 3  ammonium carbonate(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3  cobalt(III) nitriteCo(NO 2 ) 3 I I I M I I M

27 Naming Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions  When you name a compound with a polyatomic ion, the polyatomic ion keeps its name.  It is easy to identify a compound with a polyatomic ion because it will have more than 2 elements (more than 2 capital letters).

28 Tips for Success  Before naming ANY compound,  Determine the type of compound.  If the compound is molecular, remember use prefixes.  If the compound is ionic, answer the following questions. Does the metal need a roman numeral? Does the compound have a polyatomic ion?

29 Examples  NaHCO 3 sodium hydrogen carbonate  (NH 4 ) 2 Oammonium oxide  FeSO 4 iron(II) sulfate  AgC 2 H 3 O 2 silver acetate  Ni(NO 3 ) 2 nickel(II) nitrate  ClOchlorine monoxide  AuClO 3 gold(I) chlorate I I I I I M I

30 Monday Bell Ringer  Which of the following compounds represent trichlorine hexoxide?  A. Cl 3 O 6  B. ClO 3  C. O 3 Cl 6  Which of the following compounds represent manganese (III) oxide?  A. MgO  B. Mn 2 O 3  C. Mg 2 O 3

31 Properties of Acids  Corrosive  Sour Taste  React with Metals to Produce Hydrogen Gas (H + )  pH less than 7  Can conduct electricity  Contain H + ions  Generally found as (aq) or aqueous

32 Binary Acids  Binary acids are made up of HYDROGEN + ANOTHER ELEMENT.  Example: HCl (hydrogen + chlorine)  Example: H 2 S (hydrogen + sulfur)

33 Naming Binary Acids:  1. Prefix: hydro-  2. Element Name  3. –ic  4. Last word: “acid”  Ie: hydroelementic acid

34 In Class Examples: Naming Binary Acids  HClhydrochloric acid  HFhydrofluoric acid  HBrhydrobromic acid

35 Ternary Acids  These acids contain a POLYATOMIC ION.  Also called oxy-acids.  Example: H 2 SO 3 = sulfurous acid

36 Naming Ternary Acids  1. Name the polyatomic ion.  2. Change PAI ending in –ate to –ic.  Example: sulfate  sulfuric phosphate  phosphoric  3. Change PAI ending in –ite to –ous.  Example: sulfite  sulfurous phosphite  phosphorous  4. Last word is “acid”.

37 In Class Examples of Naming Ternary Acids:  H 2 SO 4 sulfuric acid  H 2 CO 3 carbonic acid  HNO 2 nitrous acid  H 3 PO 4 phosphoric acid

38 Writing Acid Formulas  You do not have notes on this- we will practice in a minute!  Always begins with Hydrogen!  Hydrogen = H +  You will then follow the same process as you would an IONIC compound!  Example: hydrochloric acid = H + and Cl - = HCl  Example: sulfuric acid = H + and SO 4 2- = H 2 SO 4

39 Writing Acid Formulas:  Tips: 1. Your first element is ALWAYS H + 2. Identify if it is a BINARY acid or TERNARY acid. - begins with hydro- and ends in –ic? (1 element!) - no hydro- prefix, or ends in –ous? (PAI!)

40 STOP: IN CLASS PRACTICE  I’ll make a SMART board notebook, you will probably want to do it on the overhead.  Exit Ticket will be the page in the notes titled “In Class Practice for Nomenclature of Acids.”  Darla just ed out a homework that I’ll probably use!

41 Writing Formulas for Acids  Remember your patterns.  Hydro-ic acid  No oxygen  X-ic acid  -ate polyatomic ion  X-ous acid  - ite polyatomic ion  The positive ion is always H +.  The sum of the charges of the ions must add up to zero.

42 Examples  hydroselenic acidH 2 Se  phosphoric acidH 3 PO 4  nitrous acidHNO 2  sulfurous acidH 2 SO 3  dichromic acidH 2 Cr 2 O 7

43 Keys to Success  Before naming ANY compound,  Identify the type of compound. Molecular? Ionic? Acid?  If it is molecular, remember to use your prefixes.  If it is ionic, ask yourself. Does the metal need a roman numeral? Does it contain a polyatomic ion?  If it is an acid, which pattern does it follow?

44 Mixing It Up!  H 2 CrO 4 chromic acid  Na 2 SO 3 sodium sulfite  HF hydrofluoric acid  P 5 O 10 pentaphosphorus decoxide  Fe(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 iron(II) acetate  ZnCl 2 zinc chloride  H 3 PO 3 phosphorous acid A I A M I I A

45 Keys to Success  Before writing the formula for ANY compound,  Identify the type of compound. Molecular? Ionic? Acid?  If it is ionic, does it contain a polyatomic ion?  If it is an acid, which pattern does it follow? No Oxygen? -ATE Polyatomic Ion? -ITE Polyatomic Ion?

46 Examples  barium phosphateBa 3 (PO 4 ) 2  bromic acidHBrO 3  ammonium dichromate(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7  iron(III) sulfide Fe 2 S 3  dichlorine heptachloride Cl 2 O 7  hydrosulfuric acid H 2 S  gold(III) chlorate Au(ClO 3 ) 3 I A I I M A I -ate No O

47 PUZZLE PIECE ACTIVITY ON WRITING FORMULAS FOR IONIC COMPOUNDS Work in pairs to assemble the various compounds. Let’s try the first one together. What is the compound formed between Mg and F? Mg 2+ Magnesium F - fluoride F - fluoride A perfectly assembled compound should be a square or a rectangle. Metal Metal’s Charge Nonmetal Nonmetal’s Charge Picture of Puzzle Pieces FormulaName Sum of Charges MgF +2MgF 2 magnesium fluoride 0


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