3Type II Ionic compounds (variable charge cations and monatomic anions) Examples –CuCl = copper (I) chloridePbS = ???
4Type II – Variable Charge Same as Type I and Type IV except you have to indicate what charge the variable charge ion has!For example:FeO = iron (II) oxide (or ferrous oxide)Fe2O3 = iron (III) oxide (or ferric oxide)SnH2 = tin (II) hydride (or stannous hydride)SnBr4 = tin (IV) bromide (or stannic bromide)
5Type III Examples – Covalent compounds with only nonmetals Key… these are not compounds of ions! That is why the rules are so different.Examples –P3O5 = triphosphorus pentoxideSO = ???
6Prefixes! Number of atoms Prefix 1 mono- 2 di- 3 tri- 4 tetra- 5 penta-6hexa-
7Some TYPE III tips…Never use “mono” at the beginning of the compound name, if there’s only 1 of the first atom no prefix is necessary.If the vowel at the end of the prefix plus the vowel at the start of the element name is awkward, (e.g. mono- and oxide) the vowel on the prefix gets dropped. (monoxide, tetroxide)
8Name NO Name 1st element: nitrogen Name 2nd element like an anion: oxideUse prefixes to denote numbers of atoms1 nitrogen: if only 1 of the first atom, no prefix1 oxygen: mono-nitrogen monoxide
9Name BF3 Name the first element using the element name: boron Name the second element as if it were an anion: fluoride (instead of fluorine)Use prefixes to denote numbers of atoms:1 boron: if only 1 of the first atom, no prefix3 fluorine: tri-boron trifluoride
12Two super awesome websites for polyatomic ion practice! Charge practice: tmlName/formula practice: ml(Really tough ion/compound practice: ions.html)
13Acid Naming (our last type!) Acids = molecules that produce H+ ions in waterFirst recognized for the sour taste of their solutions: e.g. citric acid in lemons and limes is responsible for that sour tasteAn acid is an anion with one or more H+ cations bonded to it that it can let go of when dissolved in water.
14Acid Naming Rule #1If the anion does NOT contain oxygen… HCl 1. Use the prefix hydro- and the suffix –ic after the “root” of the anion: chloride hydrochloric acid How do you know it’s an acid?
15More Practice… Acid Naming Rule #1 If the anion does NOT contain oxygen… HCN 1. Use the prefix hydro- and the suffix –ic after the “root” of the anion: cyanide hydrocyanic acid Is it an acid if it’s not dissolved in water?
16Remember…Acids are ionic compounds beginning with H that dissolve in water to form a solution that we call an acid. They are not often found/used in their solid form so we prefer to name them as acids in their solution form.
17Acid Naming Rule #2If the anion DOES contain oxygen… H2SO4 2. Take the root name of the central anion and add a suffix: -ic when the anion ends in –ate -ous when anion names in –ite hydrogen sulfate should be called… …sulfuric acid
18Acid Naming Rule #2If the anion DOES contain oxygen… HNO2 2. Take the root name of the central anion and add a suffix: -ic when the anion ends in –ate -ous when anion names in –ite hydrogen nitrite should be called… …nitrous acid
19Acid Naming Rule #3If the anion DOES contain oxygen, but isn’t a simple “-ate” or an “-ite”…perchloratechloratechloritehypochloriteHClO4HClO3HClO2HClOperchloric acidchloric acidhypochlorous acidchlorous acidper - used for anions with one more oxygen than an ‘-ate”hypo - used for anions with one less oxygen than an ‘-ite”
20More Practice…Acid Naming Rule #3 If the anion DOES contain oxygen, but isn’t a simple “-ate” or an “-ite”…perbromatebromatebromitehypobromiteHBrO4HBrO3HBrO2HBrOperbromic acidbromic acidhypobromous acidbromous acidper - used for anions with one more oxygen than an ‘-ate”hypo - used for anions with one less oxygen than an ‘-ite”
21Acid Naming Summary Ex’s: HF, HS, HN Ex’s: HNO3,HNO2,HNO, HNO4 NO OxygenAlways:Hydro[anion root]icacidCONTAINS OxygenWhat is the key anion?How many oxygens does it have compared to the “-ate” or “-ite”?(prefix)[anion root](suffix)acidEx’s: HF, HS, HNEx’s: HNO3,HNO2,HNO, HNO4hydrofluoric acid, hydrosulfuric acid, hydronitric acidnitric acid, nitrous acid, hyponitrous acid, pernitric acid