Same as Type I and Type IV except you have to indicate what charge the variable charge ion has! For example: ◦ FeO=iron (II) oxide (or ferrous oxide) ◦ Fe 2 O 3 =iron (III) oxide (or ferric oxide) ◦ SnH 2 =tin (II) hydride (or stannous hydride) ◦ SnBr 4 =tin (IV) bromide (or stannic bromide)
Covalent compounds with only nonmetals Key… these are not compounds of ions! That is why the rules are so different. Examples – ◦ P 3 O 5 = triphosphorus pentoxide ◦ SO = ???
Number of atomsPrefix 1mono- 2di- 3tri- 4tetra- 5penta- 6hexa-
Never use “mono” at the beginning of the compound name, if there’s only 1 of the first atom no prefix is necessary. If the vowel at the end of the prefix plus the vowel at the start of the element name is awkward, (e.g. mono- and oxide) the vowel on the prefix gets dropped. (monoxide, tetroxide)
1. Name 1 st element: nitrogen 2. Name 2 nd element like an anion: oxide 3. Use prefixes to denote numbers of atoms ◦ 1 nitrogen: if only 1 of the first atom, no prefix ◦ 1 oxygen: mono- ◦ nitrogen monoxide
1. Name the first element using the element name: boron 2. Name the second element as if it were an anion: fluoride (instead of fluorine) 3. Use prefixes to denote numbers of atoms: ◦ 1 boron: if only 1 of the first atom, no prefix ◦ 3 fluorine: tri- ◦ boron trifluoride
Ionic compounds (polyatomic ions–mostly anions) Examples – ◦ K 2 SO 4 = potassium sulfate ◦ (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 = ???
Charge practice: tml tml Name/formula practice: ml ml (Really tough ion/compound practice: ions.html) ions.html
Acids = molecules that produce H + ions in water First recognized for the sour taste of their solutions: e.g. citric acid in lemons and limes is responsible for that sour taste An acid is an anion with one or more H + cations bonded to it that it can let go of when dissolved in water.
If the anion does NOT contain oxygen… HCl 1. Use the prefix hydro- and the suffix –ic after the “root” of the anion: chloride hydrochloric acid How do you know it’s an acid?
If the anion does NOT contain oxygen… HCN 1. Use the prefix hydro- and the suffix –ic after the “root” of the anion: cyanide hydrocyanic acid Is it an acid if it’s not dissolved in water?
Acids are ionic compounds beginning with H that dissolve in water to form a solution that we call an acid. They are not often found/used in their solid form so we prefer to name them as acids in their solution form.
If the anion DOES contain oxygen… H 2 SO 4 2. Take the root name of the central anion and add a suffix: -ic when the anion ends in –ate -ous when anion names in –ite hydrogen sulfate should be called… …sulfuric acid
If the anion DOES contain oxygen… HNO 2 2. Take the root name of the central anion and add a suffix: -ic when the anion ends in –ate -ous when anion names in –ite hydrogen nitrite should be called… …nitrous acid
If the anion DOES contain oxygen, but isn’t a simple “-ate” or an “-ite”… perchloric acid chloric acid hypochlorous acid chlorous acid perchlorate chlorate chlorite hypochlorite HClO 4 HClO 3 HClO 2 HClO per - used for anions with one more oxygen than an ‘-ate” hypo - used for anions with one less oxygen than an ‘-ite”
If the anion DOES contain oxygen, but isn’t a simple “-ate” or an “-ite”… perbromic acid bromic acid hypobromous acid bromous acid perbromate bromate bromite hypobromite HBrO 4 HBrO 3 HBrO 2 HBrO per - used for anions with one more oxygen than an ‘-ate” hypo - used for anions with one less oxygen than an ‘-ite”
Ex’s: HF, HS, HN Ex’s: HNO 3,HNO 2,HNO, HNO 4 NO Oxygen Always: Hydro[anion root]ic acid CONTAINS Oxygen What is the key anion? How many oxygens does it have compared to the “-ate” or “-ite”? (prefix)[anion root](suffix) acid hydrofluoric acid, hydrosulfuric acid, hydronitric acid nitric acid, nitrous acid, hyponitrous acid, pernitric acid