Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds Chapter 6 Hein and Arena Eugene Passer Chemistry Department Bronx Community College © John Wiley and Sons, Inc Version.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds Chapter 6 Hein and Arena Eugene Passer Chemistry Department Bronx Community College © John Wiley and Sons, Inc Version."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds Chapter 6 Hein and Arena Eugene Passer Chemistry Department Bronx Community College © John Wiley and Sons, Inc Version 1.1

2 2 Chapter Outline 6.1 Common and Systematic NamesCommon and SystematicNames 6.2 Elements and IonsElements and Ions 6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of CompoundsWriting Formulas fromNames of Compounds 6.4 Binary CompoundsBinary Compounds 6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic IonsNaming CompoundsContaining Polyatomic Ions 6.6 AcidsAcids

3 3 Chemical nomenclature is the system of names that chemists use to identify compounds. Two classes of names exist: common names and systematic names. Common and Systematic Names

4 4 They are not based on the composition of the compound. They are based on an outstanding chemical or physical property. Chemists prefer systematic names. Systematic names precisely identify the chemical composition of the compound. The present system of inorganic chemical nomenclature was devised by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Common names are arbitrary names.

5 5

6 6 The formula for most elements is the symbol of the element. SodiumNa PotassiumK ZincZn ArgonAr MercuryHg LeadPb CalciumCa Elements and Ions

7 7 HydrogenH 2 NitrogenN 2 OxygenO 2 Fluorine F 2 ChlorineCl 2 BromineBr 2 Iodine I 2 These 7 elements are found in nature as diatomic molecules. Diatomic Molecules

8

9 9 SulfurS 8 PhosphorousP 4 Two elements are commonly polyatomic. Polyatomic Elements

10 10 → remove e - neutral atom A charged particle known as an ion can be produced by adding or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom. cation If one or more electrons are removed from a neutral atom a positive ion is formed. A positive ion is called a cation. Ions

11 11 Two types - Cations – From loss of electrons - Anions – From the gain of electrons Ions

12 12 → remove e - neutral atom A charged particle known as an ion can be produced by adding or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom. cation If one or more electrons are removed from a neutral atom a positive ion is formed. A positive ion is called a cation.

13 13 Na  Na + + e - Ca  Ca e - Al  Al e - Positive Ion Formation: Loss of Electrons From a Neutral Atom

14 14 Cations are named the same as their parent atoms. Naming Cations

15 15 Atom Cation Name of Cation sodium (Na) Na + sodium ion

16 16 Atom Cation Name of Cation calcium (Ca) Ca 2+ calcium ion

17 17 Atom Cation Name of Cation lithium (Li) Li + lithium ion

18 18 Atom Cation Name of Cation magnesium (Mg) Mg 2+ magnesium ion

19 19 Atom Cation Name of Cation strontium (Sr) Sr 2+ strontium ion

20 20 → neutral atom A charged particle known as an ion can be produced by adding or removing one or more electrons from a neutral atom. If one or more electrons are added to a neutral atom a negative ion is formed. A negative ion is called an anion. add e - anion

21 21 An anion consisting of one element has the stem of the parent element and an –ide ending Naming Anions

22 22 Atom Anion Name of Anion fluorine (F) F-F- fluoride ion stem

23 23 Atom Anion Name of Anion chlorine (Cl) Cl - chloride ion stem

24 24 Atom Anion Name of Anion bromine (Br) Br - bromide ion stem

25 25 Atom Anion Name of Anion nitrogen (N) N 3- nitride ion stem

26 26 Atom Anion Name of Anion phosphorous (P) P 3- phosphide ion stem

27 27 Atom Anion Name of Anion oxygen (O) O 2- oxide ion stem

28 28 Ions are always formed by adding or removing electrons from an atom. Naming Anions

29 29 Most often ions are formed when metals combine with nonmetals. Naming Anions

30 30 The charge on an ion can be predicted from its position in the periodic table. Naming Anions

31 31 elements of Group IIA have a +2 charge elements of Group IA have a +1 charge elements of Group VA have a -3 charge elements of Group VIA have a -2 charge elements of Group VIIA have a -1 charge Naming Anions

32 The charge on a main-group (U.S. A group) ion corresponds to its group number: Group1A2A3A5A6A7A Charge –2–1–

33 33 A chemical compound must have a net charge of zero. Writing Formulas From Names of Compounds

34 34 If the compound contains ions, then the charges on all of the ions must add to zero. Writing Formulas From Names of Compounds

35 35 Write the formula of calcium chloride. Step 1. Write down the formulas of the ions. Ca 2+ Cl - Step 2. Combine the smallest numbers of Ca 2+ and Cl - so that the sum of the charges equals zero. (2+) + 2(1-) = 0 The correct formula is CaCl 2 The lowest common multiple of +2 and –1 is 2 The cation is written first. The anion is written second. (Ca 2+ ) + 2(Cl - ) = 0

36 36 Write the formula of barium phosphide. Step 1. Write down the formulas of the ions. Ba 2+ P 3- Step 2. Combine the smallest numbers of Ba 2+ and P 3- so that the sum of the charges equals zero. 3(2+) + 2(3-) = 0 The correct formula is Ba 3 P 2 The lowest common multiple of +2 and –3 is 6 3(Ba 2+ ) + 2(P 3- ) = 0 The cation is written first. The anion is written second.

37 37 Write the formula of magnesium oxide. Step 1. Write down the formulas of the ions. Mg 2+ O 2- Step 2. Combine the smallest numbers of Mg 2+ and O 2- so that the sum of the charges equals zero. (2+) + (2-) = 0 The correct formula is MgO The lowest common multiple of +2 and –2 is 1 ( Mg 2+ ) + (O 2- ) = 0

38 38 Binary compounds contain only two different elements. Binary Compounds

39 39 Binary ionic compounds consist of a metal combined with a non-metal. Binary Compounds

40 40 A. Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal Forming Only One Type of Cation Binary Compounds

41 41 The chemical name is composed of the name of the metal followed by the name of the nonmetal which has been modified to an identifying stem plus the suffix –ide. Using this system the number of atoms of each element present is not expressed in the name. Binary Compounds

42 42 Name of Metal + Stem of Nonmetal plus -ide ending

43 43

44 44 Step 1 From the formula it is a two-element compound and follows the rules for binary compounds. Name the Compound CaF 2

45 45 Name the Compound CaF 2 Step 2 The compound is composed of Ca, a metal, and F, a nonmetal. Ca forms only a +2 cation. Thus, call the positive part of the compound calcium.

46 46 Step 3 Modify the name of the second element to the stem fluor- and add the binary ending –ide to form the name of the negative part, fluoride. Name the Compound CaF 2

47 47 Step 4 The name of the compound is therefore calcium fluoride. Name the Compound CaF 2

48 48 Compound Name sodium chloride NaCl nonmetal stem name of metalExamples

49 49 Compound Name magnesium chloride MgCl 2 nonmetal stem name of metalExamples

50 50 Compound Name potassium oxide K2OK2O nonmetal stem name of metalExamples

51 51 Compound Name sodium phosphide Na 3 P nonmetal stem name of metalExamples

52 52 B. Binary Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That Can Form Two or More Types of Cations Binary Compounds

53 53 Name the Compound FeS Step 1 This compound follows the rules for a binary compound.

54 54 Step 2 It is a compound of Fe, a metal, and S, a nonmetal. Fe is a transition metal that has more than one type of cation. Name the Compound FeS Step 2 In sulfides, the charge on S is –2. Therefore the charge on Fe must be +2, and the name of the positive part of the compound is iron (II).

55 55 Step 3 We have already determined that the name of the negative part of the compound will be sulfide. Name the Compound FeS

56 56 Step 4 The name of FeS is iron(II) sulfide. Name the Compound FeS

57 57 The metals in the center of the periodic table (including the transition metals) often form more than one type of cation. The Stock System

58 58 Each ion of iron forms a different compound with the same anion. Fe 2+ Fe 3+ FeS Fe 2 S 3

59 59 IUPAC devised the Stock System of nomenclature to name compounds of metals that have more than one type of cation. Cation Charge Roman Numeral IIIIIIIVV In the Stock System the charge on the cation is designated by a Roman numeral placed in parentheses immediately following the name of the metal. The nonmetal name ends in -ide.

60 60 Stock System Lower Charge Higher Charge ElementFormulaNameFormulaName Copper Cu + copper (I) Cu 2+ copper (II) Iron Fe 2+ iron(II) Fe 3+ iron(III) Lead Pb 2+ lead (II) Pb 4+ lead(IV) Mercury Hg 2 2+ mercury(I) Hg 2+ mercury(II) Tin Sn 2+ Tin(II) Sn 4+ Tin (II) Stock System Higher Charge ElementFormulaNameFormulaName Lower Charge

61 61 ion chargeion name FeCl 2 iron(II) chloride +2 chlorideiron(II) FeCl 3 iron(III) chloride +3 iron(III)chloride compound nameExamples

62 62 ion chargeion name SnBr 2 tin(II) bromide +2 bromidetin(II) SnBr 4 tin(IV) bromide +4 tin(IV)bromide compound nameExamples

63 63 In the Classical System the name of the metal (usually the Latin name) is modified with the suffixes -ous and ic. The Classical System

64 64 -ous lower charge - ic higher charge Metal name ends in nonmetal name ends in -ide The Classical System

65 65 ion chargeion name FeCl 2 ferrous chloride +2 chlorideferrous FeCl 3 ferric chloride +3 ferricchloride compound name Examples

66 66 ion chargeion name SnBr 2 stannous bromide +2 bromidestannous SnBr 4 stannic bromide +4 stannicbromide compound name Examples

67 67 Lower Charge Higher Charge ElementFormulaNameFormulaName CopperCu + cuprousCu 2+ Cupric IronFe 2+ ferrousFe 3+ ferric LeadPb 2+ plumbousPb 4+ plumbic MercuryHgmercurousHg 2+ mercuric TinSn 2+ stannousSn 4+ stannic Ion Names: Classical System 2+ 2

68 68 Compounds between nonmetals are molecular, not ionic. Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals

69 69 In a compound formed between two nonmetals, the element that occurs first in this series is named first. Si B P H C S I Br N Cl O F Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals

70 70 A Greek prefix is placed before the name of each element to indicate the number of atoms of the element that are present.Prefixes

71 71 di = 2 tri = 3 tetra = 4 penta = 5 hexa = 6 hepta = 7 octa = 8 nona = 9 deca = 10 mono = 1 Mono is rarely used when naming the first element. Prefixes

72 72 N2O3N2O3 dinitrogen trioxide indicates two nitrogen atoms indicates three oxygen atomsExamples

73 73 PCl 5 phosphorous pentachloride indicates one phosphorous atom indicates five chlorine atomsExamples

74 74 Cl 2 O 7 dichlorine heptaoxide indicates two chlorine atoms indicates seven oxygen atomsExamples

75 75 Step 1 There are 2 elements present. The compound is binary. Phosphorous and chlorine are nonmetals so the rules for naming binary compounds of 2 nonmetals apply. Phosphorous is named first. Therefore the compound is a chloride. Determine the Name of PCl 5

76 76 Step 2 No prefix is needed for phosphorous because each molecule of PCl 5 has only one phosphorous atom. The prefix penta- is used with chloride because there are 5 chlorine atoms present in one molecule. Step 3 The name is phosphorous pentachloride. Determine the Name of PCl 5

77 77 dichlorine trioxide Cl 2 O 3Examples

78 78 dinitrogen trioxide N2O3N2O3Examples

79 79 carbon tetrachloride CCl 4Examples

80 80 carbon monoxide COExamples

81 81 carbon dioxide Name CO 2Examples

82 82 phosphorous triiodide Name PI 3Examples

83 83 D. Acids Derived from Binary Compounds

84 84 Certain binary hydrogen compounds, when dissolved in water, form solutions that have acid properties. The aqueous solutions of these compounds are given acid names. The acids names are in addition to their –ide names. Hydrogen is typically the first element of a binary acid formula. D. Acids Derived from Binary Compounds

85 85 Acid Formation water acid binary hydrogen compound (not an acid). D. Acids Derived from Binary Compounds

86 86 Dissolved in water acid HCl Pure compound HCl -ide D. Acids Derived from Binary Compounds

87 87 To name binary acids write the symbol of hydrogen first. After hydrogen write the symbol of the second element. Place the prefix hydro- in front of the stem of the nonmetal name. Place the suffix -ic after the stem of the nonmetal name. D. Acids Derived from Binary Compounds

88 88 HCl hydrogen chloride Pure CompoundExamples

89 89 HCl hydrochloric acid Dissolved in WaterExamples

90 90 HI hydrogen iodide Pure CompoundExamples

91 91 HI hydroiodic acid Dissolved in WaterExamples

92 92 H2SH2S hydrogen sulfide Pure Compound Examples

93 93 H2SH2S hydrosulfuric acid Dissolved in WaterExamples

94 94 H 2 Se hydrogen selenide Pure Compound Examples

95 95 H 2 Se hydroselenic acid Dissolved in WaterExamples

96 96

97 97 A polyatomic ion is an ion that contains two or more elements. Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

98 98 They usually consist of one or more cations combined with a negative polyatomic ion. Compounds containing polyatomic ions are composed of three or more elements. Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

99 99 When naming a compound containing a polyatomic ion, name the cation first and then name the anion. Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

100 100 The ions are what is actually present. This is the way the formula is written.

101 101 This is the way the formula is written. The ions are what is actually present.

102 102 Prefixes and Suffixes Elements that Form More than One Polyatomic Ion with Oxygen

103 103 Anions ending in -ate always contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite. nitratenitrite

104 104 Anions ending in -ate always contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite. phosphatephosphite

105 105 Anions ending in -ate always contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite. sulfatesulfite -ate and –ite do not indicate the number of oxygen atoms.

106 106 perper- denotes anions with more oxygen than the -ate form. perchloratechlorate

107 107 hypohypo- denotes anions with less oxygen than the -ite form. chloritehypochlorite

108 108

109 109 Four ions do not use the –ate/ite system. hydroxide hydrogen sulfide cyanide peroxide

110 110 There are three common positively charged polyatomic ions. ammoniumhydronium mercury(I)

111 111

112 The Acids of Chlorine and Their Anions If the number of oxygens is one larger than the number in the -ic acid, the prefix per- is placed before both the acid and anion names: HClO 4 is perchloric acid and ClO 4 – is perchlorate ion If the number of oxygens is one smaller than the number in the -ic acid, the suffixes -ic and -ate are replaced with -ous and -ite: HClO 2 is chlorous acid, and ClO 2 – is the chlorite ion

113 The Acids of Chlorine and Their Anions If the number of oxygens is two smaller than the number in the -ic acid (one smaller than the number in the -ous acid), the prefix hypo- is placed before both the acid and anion names, and the -ous and - ite suffixes are kept: HClO is hypochlorous acid and ClO – is the hypochlorite ion The name of an acid with no oxygen is hydro- followed by the name of the nonmetal, changed to end in -ic: HCl is hydrochloric acid. The monatomic anion from the acid is named by the rule for monatomic anions, by which the elemental name is changed to end in -ide: Cl – is the chloride ion

114 114

115 115

116 116 The other element is usually a nonmetal, but it can be a metal. Its first element is hydrogen. Its remaining elements include oxygen and form a polyatomic ion. Oxy-acids contain hydrogen, oxygen and one other element. AcidsAcids

117 117 Hydrogen in an oxy-acid is not expressed in the acid name. The word acid in the name indicates the presence of hydrogen.AcidsAcids

118 118 contains oxygen contains sulfur contains hydrogen indicates hydrogen sulfuric acid AcidsAcids

119 119 Anions ending in -ate always contain more oxygen than ions ending in -ite. phosphatephosphiteAcidsAcids

120 120 Naming the Acid Based on the Name of the Polyatomic Ion Ending of Polyatomic Ion more oxygen less oxygen ite ate Ending of Acid ous ic

121 121 sulfite sulfurous acid Examples

122 122 sulfate sulfuric acid Examples

123 123 nitrite nitrous acid Examples

124 124 nitrate nitric acid Examples

125 125

126 126

127 127 Chapter 6 – Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds 6.1 Common and Systematic NamesCommon and Systematic Names 6.2 Elements and Ions – Naming elements and ions.Elements and Ions 6.3 Writing Formulas from Names of Compounds – Determine formula and name compound.Writing Formulas from Names of Compounds 6.4 Binary Compounds – Naming and formulas for binary compounds.Binary Compounds 6.5 Naming Compounds Containing Polyatomic IonsNaming Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions 6.6 Acids – Binary and oxy-acids.Acids


Download ppt "1 Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds Chapter 6 Hein and Arena Eugene Passer Chemistry Department Bronx Community College © John Wiley and Sons, Inc Version."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google