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Elements Simplest form of matter that retains its properties Known by common names and abbreviations.

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Presentation on theme: "Elements Simplest form of matter that retains its properties Known by common names and abbreviations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elements Simplest form of matter that retains its properties Known by common names and abbreviations

2 Compounds Made of two or more elements chemically combined in definite proportions – Law of definite proportions: pure compounds always have the same ratio of elements H 2 O = 2 Hydrogen for every 1 Oxygen (Chemical Formula) Two Types: ①Ionic Compounds ②Molecular Compounds (Molecules)

3 Paper Clip Lab Elements vs. Compounds vs. Mixtures

4 Ionic Compounds Made up of Ions: Charged atoms Cations: Positive charge Ex:Na (Atom)Na + (Cation)11 protons (+) 11 electrons (-)10 electrons (-) Anions: Negative Charge Ex:Cl (Atom)Cl - (Anion)17 protons (+) 17 electrons (-)18 electrons (-)

5 Ions Vs. Atoms There are chemical differences between ions and atoms…. Na + vs. Na University of Nottingham Army disposing of Na

6 Ions and Periodic Table

7 2 Types of Ions Monatomic Ions: Single elements Na + Zn 2+ Br - Cl - O 2- Polyatomic Ions: Two or more different elements NH 4 + CO 3 2- CrO 4 2- Cr 2 O 7 2- See your handout for the list

8 Ionic Compounds Cation + Anion = Ionic Compound Na + + Cl - = NaCl Ni (IO 3 - ) = Ni(IO 3 ) 2 The positive cation and negative anion attract each other to form neutral compound Usually solids with high melting and boiling points Usually form from metal and nonmetal

9 Naming Ionic Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds: 2 different ions K + + Cl -  KCl ①Cation is ALWAYS first ②Net charge is ALWAYS zero ③Cation name doesn’t change. ④Change anion name by using the “ide” ending KCl = Potassium Chloride

10 Naming Ionic Compounds ①NaCl = ②MgO = ③KF = ④CaBr 2 =

11 Naming Ionic Compounds Some elements (called transition metals) can form more than one type of positive ion. The positive charge of the ion is then indicated by a roman numeral. Fe 2+ = iron(II) Fe 3+ = iron(III) Cu + = copper(I) Cu 2+ = copper(II)

12 Naming Ionic Compounds ①CuBr = ②PbCl 2 = ③FeN = ④CrP =

13 Naming Ionic Compounds Polyatomic ions: – Have special names – Are treated as one unit (they don’t break apart) – Most end in “ite” or “ate” Ba 2+ + CO 3 2-  BaCO 3 BariumCarbonateBarium carbonate

14 Naming Ionic Compounds ①FePO 4 = ②CaCrO 4 = ③NaNO 3 ④SnSO 4

15 Naming Ionic Compounds ①Zinc chloride = ②Iron(II) oxide = ③Tin(IV) sulfite = ④Aluminum hypochlorite =

16 Molecule Neutral groups of non-metallic elements joined by covalent bonds (electrons are shared) NO IONS – NO CHARGE Low melting and boiling points – Liquids and gases at room temperature Ex: H 2 O, CO 2, O 2, and Cl 2

17 Naming Molecular Compounds Name them in the order that they appear – Element with more positive chemical nature will be first “More positive” means towards the left side of periodic table – Second element: drop the last syllable and add “ide” If there is more than one atom of an element, add a numerical prefix: CO = Carbon Monoxide CO 2 = Carbon Dioxide N 2 O 3 = Dinitrogen Trioxide

18 Naming Molecular Compounds ①Dinitrogen monoxide = ②Silicon carbide = ③N 2 O 4 = ④Cl 2 O 8 =

19 Naming Acids and Bases Acid: Produces hydrogen ion (H + ) when dissolved in H 2 O – Formula = (H + to balance the anion charge) + (anion) Ex: H 2 S HCl Base: Produces hydroxide ion (OH - ) when dissolved in H 2 O Formula= cation metal + hydroxide ion to balance charge Ex: NaOH Al(OH) 3

20 Naming Acids When the anion…. – Ends with “ide”: acid name begins with “hydro” the suffix “ic” is added to the anion Ex: HCl = hydrochloric acid -Ends with “ite”: the suffix “ous” is added to the anion Ex: H 2 SO 3 = sulfurous acid -Ends with “ate”: the suffix “ic” is added to the anion Ex: HNO 3 = nitric acid

21 Naming Bases Named the same way as ionic compounds – Al(OH) 3 = aluminum hydroxide – Fe(OH) 3 = iron(III) hydroxide

22 Naming Acids and Bases ①H 2 CO 3 = ②Phosphoric acid = ③KOH = ④Strontium hydroxide =


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