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Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and Compounds. The Composition of Compounds The law of multiple proportions states that the masses of element Y that combine with.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and Compounds. The Composition of Compounds The law of multiple proportions states that the masses of element Y that combine with."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Atoms, Ions, and Compounds

2 The Composition of Compounds The law of multiple proportions states that the masses of element Y that combine with a fixed mass of elements X to form two or more different compounds are in the ratios of small whole numbers. Examples: NO, NO 2, N 2 O, N 2 O 5, etc.

3 Atomic Structure J. J. Thomson discovered the subatomic particle know as the electron. Thomson used cathode ray tube.

4 Mass of An Electron Robert Millikan determined the mass of an electron with his oil-droplet experiment.

5 Thomson Model of the Atom J. J. Thomson’s Plum-pudding model of the atom.

6 Radioactivity and the Nuclear Atom Henri Becquerel discovered that some samples produced invisible radiation. One type is a steam of beta (  ) particles (high energy electrons). A second type consists of alpha (  ) particles, which have a +2 charge and a mass equivalent to that of a helium nucleus.

7 Rutherford’s Experiment Rutherford and two of his students bombarded a thin foil of gold with  particles to test Thomson’s model of the atom. Theory would predict that the  particles would travel through the foil without deflection, but the results didn’t confirm the model.

8 Rutherford’s Experiment

9 The Nuclear Atom The nucleus of an atom contains all the positive charge and nearly all the mass in an atom. The nucleus is about 1/10,000 the size of the atom. A proton is a positively charged subatomic particle present in the nucleus of an atom.

10 The Third Subatomic Particle A neutron is an electrically neutral or uncharged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Atomic Mass Units (amu) comprise a relative scale used to express the masses of atoms and subatomic particles. The scale is based on the definition that the mass of 1 atom of carbon with 6 protons and 6 neutrons in its nucleus is exactly 12 amu.

11 Aston’s Experiment Francis W. Aston built a postive-ray analyzer. Data from neon gas samples demonstrated that two different kinds of atoms or isotopes existed. Isotopes are atoms of an element whose nuclei have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

12 Aston’s Positive-ray Analyzer

13 Symbols of Isotopes Each element consists of atoms with the same number of protons in the nucleus. This number is called atomic number (Z). Protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei are called nucleons. The mass number (A) is the total number nucleons in one atom of an element.

14 Writing the Symbol of an Isotope X A Z A is the mass number Z is the atomic number X is the atomic symbol

15 Average Atomic Masses A mass spectrometer is an instrument that measures precise masses and relative amounts of ions of atoms and molecule. The natural abundance of an isotope is its relative proportion among all the isotopes found a natural sample. The average atomic mass of an element is calculated by multiplying the natural abundance of each isotope by its exact mass in atomic mass units and then summing these products.

16 Example IsotopeMass (amu)Natural abundance (%) Neon Neon Neon Neon is found in three isotopes in nature.

17 Example IsotopeMass (amu)Natural abundance (%) Neon Neon Neon Neon is found in three isotopes in nature x = x = x = amu amu amu amu

18 Mendeleev’s Periodic Table Dmitrii I. Mendeleev arranged elements in the periodic table by their chemical and physical properties. He left open spaces in his periodic table to account for elements not yet discovered.

19 The Modern Periodic Table The modern periodic table is also based on a classification of elements in terms of their physical and chemical properties. The horizontal rows are called periods. Columns contain elements of the same family or group. Transition metals are the elements in group 3 through 12 in the periodic table.

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21 Groups of Elements Group 1 contains the alkali metals. Group 2 contains the alkaline earth metals. Group 17 contains the halogens.

22 Broad Categories of Elements Metals are elements on the left-hand side of the table.  Metals are shiny solids that conduct heat and electricity well and are malleable and ductile. Nonmetals have properties opposite to those of the metals and are on the right side of table Metalloids are the elements between the metals and nonmetals.

23 Continued Main group elements or representative elements are the elements in groups 1,2 and 13 through 18. The noble gases are the elements in Group 18.

24 Kinds of Compounds Molecular Compounds are composed of atoms held together by covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are shared pairs of electrons that chemically bond atoms together. Ionic Compounds are composed of positively and negatively charged ions that are held together by electrostatic attraction. Ions with negative charge are called anions. Ions with positive charge are called cations.

25 Continued Molecular compounds are made of nonmetals Ionic compounds are made of a metal and a nonmetal. Metal form cations and nonmetals form anions.

26 Ionic compounds do not exist as discrete molecules. Instead they exist as crystals where ions of opposite charges occupy positions known as lattice sites. Ions combine in the ratio that results in zero charge to form ionic compounds. Since there is almost and infinite number of ions in a crystal lattice, then the smallest ratio, called the formula unit, is used to describe an ionic compound Crystal Lattice of NaCl Ionic Compounds

27 Terms Molecular formulas describe the exact number and type of atoms present in one molecule of a compound. An empirical formula gives the simplest whole-number ratio of elements in a compound. The formula unit of an ionic compound is the smallest electrically neutral unit within the crystal of the compound.

28 Binary means two different elements Ionic means metal and nonmetal Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn,and Al Examples NaCl Al 2 O 3 FeCl 2 FeCl 3 NOMENCLATURE I. Binary Ionic compounds

29 Binary means two different elements Ionic means metal and nonmetal Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn,and Al Examples NaCl Sodium chloride Al 2 O 3 FeCl 2 FeCl 3 NOMENCLATURE I. Binary Ionic compounds

30 Binary means two different elements Ionic means metal and nonmetal Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn,and Al Examples NaCl Sodium chloride Al 2 O 3 Aluminum oxide FeCl 2 FeCl 3 NOMENCLATURE I. Binary Ionic compounds

31 Binary means two different elements Ionic means metal and nonmetal Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn,and Al Examples NaCl Sodium chloride Al 2 O 3 Aluminum oxide FeCl 2 Iron(II) chloride FeCl 3 NOMENCLATURE I. Binary Ionic compounds

32 Binary means two different elements Ionic means metal and nonmetal Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn,and Al Examples NaCl Sodium chloride Al 2 O 3 Aluminum oxide FeCl 2 Iron(II) chloride FeCl 3 iron(III) chloride NOMENCLATURE I. Binary Ionic compounds

33 II. Nonbinary Ionic compounds Nonbinary means more than two different elements Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the memorized polyatomic ion name. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn, and Al. Examples NaOHFe(NO 3 ) 3 Fe(SO 4 ) 2 Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2

34 FormulaNameFormulaName NH 4 + AmmoniumO 2 2- Peroxide C2H3O2-C2H3O2- AcetateNO 3 - Nitrate CO 3 2- CarbonateNO 2 - Nitrite HCO 3 1- Hydorgen carbonateSO 4 2- Sulfate ClO 4 - PerchlorateSO 3 2- Sulfite ClO 3 - ChloratePO 4 3- Phosphate ClO 2 - ChloritePO 3 3- Phosphite ClO - HypochloriteCrO 4 2- Chromate CN - CyanideCr 2 O 7 2- Dichromate MnO 4 - Permanganate OH - HydroxideC 2 O 4 2- Oxalate Memorized Polyatomic Ion List

35 II. Nonbinary Ionic compounds Nonbinary means more than two different elements Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the memorized polyatomic ion name. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn, and Al. Examples NaOHFe(NO 3 ) 3 Fe(SO 4 ) 2 Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 Sodium hydroxide CO

36 II. Nonbinary Ionic compounds Nonbinary means more than two different elements Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the memorized polyatomic ion name. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn, and Al. Examples NaOHFe(NO 3 ) 3 FeSO 4 Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 Sodium hydroxide Iron(III) nitrate

37 II. Nonbinary Ionic compounds Nonbinary means more than two different elements Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the memorized polyatomic ion name. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn, and Al. Examples NaOHFe(NO 3 ) 3 FeSO 4 Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 Sodium hydroxide Iron(III) nitrate Iron(II) sulfate

38 II. Nonbinary Ionic compounds Nonbinary means more than two different elements Step 1 First give the name of the metal, followed by the memorized polyatomic ion name. Step 2 If the metal is to the right of group IIA, then a Roman numeral is used after the metal to describe the charge of the metal. Except Ag, Zn, and Al. Examples NaOHFe(NO 3 ) 3 FeSO 4 Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 Sodium hydroxide Iron(III) nitrate Iron(II) sulfate

39 III. Binary molecular Compounds Step 1 First give the name of the first nonmetal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 Give each nonmetal a Latin prefix describing the number of atoms present in the compound. Examples COCO 2 P 2 O 5 CCl 4 Molecular means nonmetals

40 You will need to learn the Greek numerical prefixes (Table 4.6): NumberPrefix 1Mono-* 2Di- 3Tri- 4Tetra- 5Penta- 6Hexa- 7Hepta- 8Octa- 9Nona- 10Deca- *Note 1 Compound names never start with mono Note 2 When adding a prefix two vowls cannot next to each other

41 III. Binary Molecular Compounds Step 1 First give the name of the first nonmetal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 Give each nonmetal a Latin prefix describing the number of atoms present in the compound. Examples CO Carbon monoxideCO 2 P 2 O 5 CCl 4 Molecular means nonmetals

42 III. Binary Molecular Compounds Step 1 First give the name of the first nonmetal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 Give each nonmetal a Latin prefix describing the number of atoms present in the compound. Examples CO Carbon monoxide CO 2 Carbon dioxide P 2 O 5 CCl 4 Molecular means nonmetals

43 III. Binary Molecular Compounds Step 1 First give the name of the first nonmetal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 Give each nonmetal a Latin prefix describing the number of atoms present in the compound. Examples CO Carbon monoxide CO 2 Carbon dioxide P 2 O 5 CCl 4 Molecular means nonmetals

44 II. Binary Ionic molecular Step 1 First give the name of the first nonmetal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 Give each nonmetal a Latin prefix describing the number of atoms present in the compound. Examples CO Carbon monoxide CO 2 Carbon dioxide P 2 O 5 Diphosphorus Pentoxide CCl 4 Molecular means combination of nonmetals

45 II. Binary Ionic molecular Step 1 First give the name of the first nonmetal, followed by the nonmetal name using the “ide” suffix. Step 2 Give each nonmetal a Latin prefix describing the number of atoms present in the compound. Examples CO Carbon monoxide CO 2 Carbon dioxide P 2 O 5 Diphosphorus Pentoxide CCl 4 Carbon tetrachloride Molecular means combination of nonmetals

46 III. Nonbinary Molecular Compounds Step 1 Write down the memorized polyatomic ions present in the compound. Step 2 Look to see if any monatomic ions are present. If so, then cations use the normal name. If it is an anion, then its name comes last with the “ide” suffix. Examples NH 4 Cl NH 4 OH Note: Do not use Latin prefixes

47 III. Nonbinary Molecular Compounds Step 1 Write down the memorized polyatomic ions present in the compound. Step 2 Look to see if any monatomic ions are present. If so, then cations use the normal name. If it is an anion, then its name comes last with the “ide” suffix. Examples NH 4 Cl NH 4 OH Note: Do not use Latin prefixes Ammonium chloride

48 III. Nonbinary Molecular Compounds Step 1 Write down the memorized polyatomic ions present in the compound. Step 2 Look to see if any monatomic ions are present. If so, then cations use the normal name. If it is an anion, then its name comes last with the “ide” suffix. Examples NH 4 Cl NH 4 OH Note: Do not use Latin prefixes Ammonium chloride Ammonium hydroxide

49 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 If the anion ends in “ide” and it is aqueous, then use the prefix hydro and suffix “ic acid” If the anion ends in “ate” then drop it and add the suffix “ic acid” If the anion ends in “ite” then drop it and add the suffix “ous acid” If the anion ends in” ide” and is a gas, or liquid, then leave the name and do not use Latin prefiex

50 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)Chloride HNO 3 HNO 2 H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name

51 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 HNO 2 H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name

52 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 Nitrate HNO 2 H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name

53 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 NitrateNitric acid HNO 2 H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name

54 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 NitrateNitric acid HNO 2 Nitrite H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name

55 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 NitrateNitric acid HNO 2 NitriteNitrous acid H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name

56 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 NitrateNitric acid HNO 2 NitriteNitrous acid H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name Oxide

57 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 NitrateNitric acid HNO 2 NitriteNitrous acid H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name Oxide Hydrogen oxide

58 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 NitrateNitric acid HNO 2 NitriteNitrous acid H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name Oxide Hydrogen oxide Chloride

59 Compounds that Start with Hydrogen Examples HCl (aq)ChlorideHydrochloric acid HNO 3 NitrateNitric acid HNO 2 NitriteNitrous acid H 2 O (l) HCl (g) Anion Name Compound Name Oxide Hydrogen oxide ChlorideHydrogen chloride

60 Oxy Anions & Related Acids ClO - HypochloriteHClO Hypochlorous acid ClO 2 - ChloriteHClO 2 Chlorous acid ClO 3 - ChlorateHClO 3 Chloric acid ClO 4 - PerchlorateHClO 4 Perchloric acid Anion Anion Name Acid Acid Name

61 Practice Write the names or chemical formulas for the following compounds. 1. Cr(ClO 4 ) 3 2. NH 4 NO 3 3. Lithium bicarbonate 4. Calcium hypobromite Chromium(III) perchlorate

62 Practice Write the name or chemical formula for the following compounds. 1. NaCl 2. CrCl 3 3. Zinc nitride 4. Copper(I) oxide

63 Practice Write the names or chemical formulas for the following compounds. 1. Cr(ClO 4 ) 3 2. NH 4 NO 3 3. Lithium bicarbonate 4. Calcium hypobromite

64 Practice Write the names or chemical formulas for the following compounds. 1. Cr(ClO 4 ) 3 2. NH 4 NO 3 3. Lithium bicarbonate 4. Calcium hypobromite Chromium(III) perchlorate

65 Practice Write the names or chemical formulas for the following compounds. 1. Cr(ClO 4 ) 3 2. NH 4 NO 3 3. Lithium bicarbonate 4. Calcium hypobromite Chromium(III) perchlorate Ammonium nitrate

66 Practice Write the names or chemical formulas for the following compounds. 1. Cr(ClO 4 ) 3 2. NH 4 NO 3 3. Lithium bicarbonate 4. Calcium hypobromite Chromium(III) perchlorate Ammonium nitrate LiHCO 3

67 Practice Write the names or chemical formulas for the following compounds. 1. Cr(ClO 4 ) 3 2. NH 4 NO 3 3. Lithium bicarbonate 4. Calcium hypobromite Chromium(III) perchlorate Ammonium nitrate LiHCO 3 Ca(BrO) 2

68 The End Ch #2 Atoms and Elements


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