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Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 The Early History of Chemistry 4 Before 16th Century – Alchemy: Attempts (scientific.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 The Early History of Chemistry 4 Before 16th Century – Alchemy: Attempts (scientific."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1 The Early History of Chemistry 4 Before 16th Century – Alchemy: Attempts (scientific or otherwise) to change cheap metals into gold 4 17th Century –Robert Boyle: First “chemist” to perform quantitative experiments 4 18th Century –George Stahl: Phlogiston flows out of a burning material. –Joseph Priestley: Discovers oxygen gas, “dephlogisticated air.”

2 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 2 Law of Conservation of Mass 4 Discovered by Antoine Lavoisier 4 Mass is neither created nor destroyed 4 Combustion involves oxygen, not phlogiston

3 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 3 Other Fundamental Chemical Laws 4 A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass. 4 Carbon tetrachloride is always 1 atom carbon per 4 atoms chlorine. Law of Definite Proportion

4 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 4 Other Fundamental Chemical Laws 4 When two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1 gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers. 4 The ratio of the masses of oxygen in H 2 O and H 2 O 2 will be a small whole number (“2”). Law of Multiple Proportions

5 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 5 Figure 2.4 Representation of some of Gay-Lussac’s Experimental Results on Combining Gas Volumes

6 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 6 Figure 2.5 Representation of Combining Gases at the Molecular Level

7 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 7 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (1808) ÊEach element is made up of tiny particles called atoms. ËThe atoms of a given element are identical; the atoms of different elements are different in some fundamental way or ways.

8 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 8 Dalton’s Atomic Theory (continued) ÌChemical compounds are formed when atoms combine with each other. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms. ÍChemical reactions involve reorganization of the atoms - changes in the way they are bound together. The atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction.

9 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 9 Avogadro’s Hypothesis (1811) 5 liters of oxygen 5 liters of nitrogen Same number of particles! At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles.

10 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 10 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom H J. J. Thomson - postulated the existence of electrons using cathode ray tubes. H Ernest Rutherford - explained the nuclear atom, containing a dense nucleus with electrons traveling around the nucleus at a large distance.

11 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 11 Figure 2.8 Deflection of Cathode Rays by an Applied Electric Field

12 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 12 Figure 2.9 The Plum Pudding Model of the Atom

13 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 13 Diagram of the Millikan Apparatus

14 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 14

15 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 15 Rutherford’s Experiment on  particle Bombardment of Metal Foil

16 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 16 Expected and Actual Results of Rutherford’s Experiment

17 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 17 Nuclear Atom Viewed in Cross Section

18 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 18 The Modern View of Atomic Structure l electrons l protons: found in the nucleus, they have a positive charge equal in magnitude to the electron’s negative charge. l neutrons: found in the nucleus, virtually same mass as a proton but no charge. The atom contains:

19 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 19 The Mass and Change of the Electron, Proton, and Neutron

20 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 20 The Chemists’ Shorthand: Atomic Symbols K  Element Symbol Mass number  Atomic number 

21 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 21 Two Isotopes of Sodium

22 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 22 Chemical Bonds The forces that hold atoms together in compounds. Covalent bonds result from atoms sharing electrons. Molecule: a collection of covalently-bonded atoms.

23 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 23 The Chemists’ Shorthand: Formulas Chemical Formula: Symbols = types of atoms Subscripts = relative numbers of atoms CO 2 Structural Formula: Individual bonds are shown by lines. O=C=OO=C=O

24 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 24 Ions Cation: A positive ion Mg 2+, NH 4 + Anion: A negative ion Cl , SO 4 2  Ionic Bonding: Force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.

25 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 25 Periodic Table Elements classified by:  properties  atomic number Groups (vertical) 1A = alkali metals 2A = alkaline earth metals 7A = halogens 8A = noble gases Periods (horizontal)

26 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 26 Naming Compounds 1. Cation first, then anion 2. Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca 2+ = calcium ion 3. Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl  = chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride Binary Ionic Compounds:

27 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 27 Naming Compounds (continued)  metal forms more than one cation  use Roman numeral in name PbCl 2 Pb 2+ is cation PbCl 2 = lead (II) chloride Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II):

28 Copyright©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 28 Naming Compounds (continued)  Compounds between two nonmetals  First element in the formula is named first.  Second element is named as if it were an anion.  Use prefixes  Never use mono- P 2 O 5 = diphosphorus pentoxide Binary compounds (Type III):

29 Writing Formulas Two sets of rules, ionic and covalent To decide which to use, decide what the first word is. If is a metal or polyatomic use ionic. If it is a non-metal use covalent

30 Ionic Formulas Charges must add up to zero get charges from table, name of metal ion, or memorized from the list use parenthesis to indicate multiple polyatomics

31 Acids Substances that produce H + ions when dissolved in water All acids begin with H Two types of acids Oxyacids non oxyacids

32 Naming acids If the formula has oxygen in it write the name of the anion, but change –ate to -ic acid –ite to -ous acid Watch out for sulfuric and sulfurous and phosphoric and phosphorous H 2 CrO 4 HMnO 4 HNO 2

33 Naming acids If the acid doesn’t have oxygen add the prefix hydro- change the suffix -ide to -ic acid HCl H 2 S HCN

34 Formulas for acids Backwards from names If it has hydro- in the name it has no oxygen anion ends in -ide No hydro, anion ends in -ate or -ite Write anion and add enough H to balance the charges.

35 Hydrates Some salts trap water crystals when they form crystals these are hydrates. Both the name and the formula needs to indicate how many water molecules are trapped In the name we add the word hydrate with a prefix that tells us how many water molecules

36 Hydrates In the formula you put a dot and then write the number of molecules. Calcium chloride dihydrate = CaCl 2  2  Chromium (III) nitrate hexahydrate = Cr(NO 3 ) 3  6H 2 O


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