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Chapter 2 Chemical Names and Formulas and Formulas.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Chemical Names and Formulas and Formulas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Chemical Names and Formulas and Formulas

2

3 Naming Ions IE X + energy X + + e - Atom Ion Cation Cation Cation Positive Ion Positive Ion Metal Metal Loses Electrons Loses Electrons Cation t looks like a +

4 Naming Ions EA X + e - X - + energy Atom Ion Anion Anion Anion Negative Ion Negative Ion Nonmetal Nonmetal Gains Electrons Gains Electrons Anion n in middle stands for negative

5 Monoatomic Ion Monatomic Ion – Ion that consists of a single atom Monatomic Ion – Ion that consists of a single atom Cation Cation Positive Ion Positive Ion Metal Metal Loses Electrons Loses Electrons Anion Anion Negative Ion Negative Ion Nonmetal Nonmetal Gain Electrons Gain Electrons

6 Rules for Ion Names/Symbols: Cation Metals = use element name = use symbol with superscript charge = superscript is written in air Alkali MetalsTransition Metals HydrogenH +1 SilverAg +1 LithiumLi +1 GoldAu +1 SodiumNa +1 PotassiumK +1

7 Rules for Ion Names/Symbols: Cation Metals = use element name = use symbol with superscript charge = superscript is written in air Alkaline Earth MetalsTransition Metals MagnesiumMg +2 CobaltCo +2 CalciumCa +2 NickelNi +2 StrontiumSr +2 ZincZn +2 BariumBa +2

8 Rules for Ion Names/Symbols: Cation Some metals have multiple charges. Stock System uses Roman numerals. Roman numerals = charge!! 1I6VI 2II7VII 3III8VIII 4IV9IX 5V10X.

9 Rules for Ion Names/Symbols: Cation Copper (I) Cu +1 Tin (II) Sn +2 Copper (II) Cu +2 Tin (IV) Sn +4 Iron (II) Fe +2 Manganese (II) Mn +2 Iron (III) Fe +3 Manganese (IV) Mn +4 Lead (II) Pb +2 Lead (IV) Pb +4

10 Rules for Ion Names/Symbols: Anion Nonmetals = use element name with ‘ide’ = use symbol with superscript charge = superscript is written in air Halogens FluorineFluorideF -1 ChlorineChlorideCl -1 BromineBromideBr -1 IodineIodideI -1

11 Rules for Ion Names/Symbols: Anion Nonmetals = use element name with ‘ide’ = use symbol with superscript charge = superscript is written in air Oxygen FamilyNitrogen Family OxygenOxide O -2 Nitrogen Nitride N -3 SulfurSulfide S -2 Phosphorus Carbon Family Phosphide P -3 Carbon Carbide C -4

12 Rules for Ion Names/Symbols: Cation or Anion ? Multiples can be cation or anion. It depends on what other ion is around it. CationAnion CarbonC +4 CarbideC -4 Nitrogen N +5 NitrideN -3 Phosphorus P +5 Phosphide P -3

13 Binary Compounds Composed of 2 elements Composed of 2 elements Can be either ionic or molecular Can be either ionic or molecular

14 Binary Ionic Compounds Consist of Ions Consist of Ions Metallic Ions bonded to Nonmetal ions Metallic Ions bonded to Nonmetal ionsor Cations bonded to Anions Cations bonded to Anions

15 Writing Names for Binary Ionic Compounds Steps 1. Use ION names. 2. Write the CATION name. 3. Then write the ANION name. For example, NaCl becomes Sodium Chloride MgBr 2 becomes Magnesium Bromide CuO becomes Copper (II) Oxide

16 Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds Steps 1. USE the IONS. 2. Write the symbol for the CATION. 3. Then write the symbol for the ANION. 4. Balance the charges to zero. The subscripts denotes the number of ions needed to balance the charges to zero.

17 Example (Level 1) Sodium Chloride Na +1 Cl -1 NaCl

18 Example (Level 1) Magnesium Oxide O -2 Mg +2 MgO

19 Example (Level 1) Aluminum Nitride Al +3 AlN N -3

20 Practice 1. Potassium Iodide 2. Calcium Sulfide 3. Aluminum Phosphide 4. Gold Fluoride 5. Barium Oxide 6. Sodium Bromide 7. Strontium Sulfide

21 Example (Level 2) Lithium Oxide Li +1 O -2 Li 2 O Li +1

22 Example (Level 2) Calcium Fluoride Ca +2 F -1 CaF 2 F -1

23 Example (Level 2) Aluminum Iodide Al +3 I -1 AlI 3 I -1

24 Practice 1. Potassium Oxide 2. Strontium Bromide 3. Aluminum Chloride 4. Gold Sulfide 5. Silver Nitride 6. Barium Fluoride 7. Calcium Iodide

25 Example (Level 3) Aluminum Sulfide Al +3 S -2 Al 2 S 3 S -2 Al +3

26 Example (Level 3) Tin (IV) Nitride Sn +4 N -3 Sn 3 N 4 N -3 Sn +4 N -3

27 Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic Ions – Ions composed of more than one atom Polyatomic Ions – Ions composed of more than one atom Most end in ite or ate Most end in ite or ate

28 Polyatomic Ions Ammonium NH 4 +1 Cyanide CN -1 Hydroxide OH -1 Nitrite NO 2 -1 Nitrate NO 3 -1 Carbonate CO 3 -2 Sulfite SO 3 -2 Sulfate SO 4 -2 Phosphite PO 3 -3 Phosphate PO 4 -3

29 Example (Level 1) Ammonium Chloride Cl - NH 4 Cl NH 4 +1

30 Example (level 1) Barium Sulfate Ba +2 SO 4 -2 BaSO 4

31 Polyatomic Ions Only When writing compounds if you need more than one polyatomic ion you must add parenthesis When writing compounds if you need more than one polyatomic ion you must add parenthesis

32 Example (Level 2) Ammonium Sulfate NH 4 +1 SO 4 -2 NH 42 SO 4 NH 4 +1 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4

33 Example (Level 2) Barium Hydroxide Ba +2 OH -1 BaOH 2 Ba(OH) 2 OH -1

34 Practice 1. Ammonium Phosphate 2. Calcium Hydroxide 3. Aluminum Nitrate 4. Magnesium Sulfate 5. Tin (IV) Carbonate 6. Strontium Sulfate 7. Barium Nitrate

35 Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Steps 1. Use the names of the ions. 2. Write the metal first followed by the nonmetal 3. The subscripts take care of themselves

36 Example NaCl Na +1 Sodium Chloride Cl -1

37 Example CaCl 2 Ca +2 Calcium Chloride Cl -1

38 Example CuSO 4 Cu +2 Copper (II) Sulfate SO 4 -2

39 Practice 1. NaI 2. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 3. MgBr 2 4. Al 2 (CO 3 ) 3 5. CuO 6. Fe 2 O 3 7. Ca 3 P 2

40 Formula Writing and Nomenclature Covalent (Molecular) Compounds Steps 1. Write the first nonmetal symbol followed by the second nonmetal symbol. 2. The Greek prefixes denote the subscripts. 3. Do not need to balance the charges.

41 Greek Prefixes for Molecular Compounds 1 Mono6 Hexa 2 Di7 Hepta 3 Tri8 Octa 4 Tetra9 Nona 5 Penta10 Deca

42 Example Carbon Dioxide C CO2CO2CO2CO2 O2

43 Example Dinitrogen Monoxide N N2ON2ON2ON2O O2 1

44 Practice 1. Sulfur Dioxide 2. Trichlorine Tetraiodide 3. Pentaphosphorus Hexasulfide 4. Heptaoxygen Octaselenide 5. Nonafluorine Decanitride 6. Dinitrogen Pentoxide 7. Carbon Tetrachloride

45 Naming Molecular Compounds Rules 1. Write the 1 st element name. 2. Write the 2 nd element name with an ending of “ide” 3. Add Greek prefixes to both names. The Greek prefix denotes the subscript. 4. Do not use a mono on the 1 st element name.

46 Example SiO 2 SiliconOxygen Silicon Dioxide Di ide

47 Example P4F6P4F6P4F6P4F6 PhosphorusFluorine Tetraphosphorus Hexafluoride Hexa ide Tetra

48 Practice 1. CO 2. Si 2 F 3. O 3 Br 7 4. IS 5. ON 4 6. F 4 H 3 7. P 7 S 9

49 Halogenated Oxyanions Name: Prefix Suffix Hypo root ite root ite root ate Per root ate Example: Chlorine Hypochlorite ClO -1 Chlorite ClO 2 -1 Chlorate ClO 3 -1 Perchlorate ClO 4 -1 Try Bromine and Iodine.

50 Polyatomic Oxyacids Example: Chlorine Hypochlorite ClO -1 Chlorite ClO 2 -1 Chlorate ClO 3 -1 Perchlorate ClO 4 -1 Example: Chlorine Hypochlorous acid HClO Chlorous acid HClO 2 Chloric acid HClO 3 Perchloric acid HClO 4

51 Binary Acids Formula: Hydrogen w Halogen Name: Hydro+Root+ic Acid HCl Hydrochloric Acid HBr Hydrobromic Acid HI Hydroiodic Acid HF Hydrofluoric Acid

52 Alkanes Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane

53 Alcohols Methanol Ethanol Propanol Butanol Pentanol

54 Other functional groups? Alcohols Ethers Aldehydes Ketones Carboxylic acid Ester Amine Amide

55 Formula weights/Molar Mass The sum of atomic weights for a compound (in amu) The number of grams in one mole of a substance (in g)

56 Lewis Dot Structures For atoms For ionic compounds For molecular compounds

57 LDS: Neutral Molecules Draw the dot structures of each atom Share one atom for each element (to make a single bond between each element) Count electrons around each atom If octets are incomplete, share more electrons between atoms

58 LDS: Negatively Charged Molecules Repeat procedure for uncharged molecules Add one electron for each negative charged atom

59 LDS: Positively charged molecules Same procedure as negative… except remove one electron

60 Web Practice Site en.html en.html


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