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VII Atomic Structure C Bonding. Bonding between atoms in a compound comes from the sharing of electrons The kind of bond formed between the two atoms.

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Presentation on theme: "VII Atomic Structure C Bonding. Bonding between atoms in a compound comes from the sharing of electrons The kind of bond formed between the two atoms."— Presentation transcript:

1 VII Atomic Structure C Bonding

2 Bonding between atoms in a compound comes from the sharing of electrons The kind of bond formed between the two atoms depends on the amount of sharing of the electrons

3 Bonding in Compounds Kinds of Bonds Ionic electron transferred from one atom to another generally between a metal cation and a non metal anion Covalent electrons shared between 2 atoms in a bond

4 Electronegativity –Measure of the ability of an atom in a bond to attract the bonding electrons –Across a Period: EN increases –Down a Group: EN decreases –Most electronegative element is fluorine Li Be B C N O F Na Mg Al Si P S Cl K Ca Ga Ge As Se Br

5 Determine the amount of covalent or ionic character in a bond Using Electronegativity The difference in electronegativity between two atoms can be used to determine how ionic or how covalent the bond is

6 Difference in electronegativity  EN  EN = 1.7 = 50% ionic  EN > 1.7 more ionic  EN < 1.7 more covalent The larger the  EN, the more ionic the bond The smaller the  EN, the more covalent the bond So the farther apart the atoms are the more ionic the bond

7 Compare three bonds: A) C--FB) O--FC) N--F Which is the most ionic?

8 Compare three bonds: A) C--F B) O--FC) N--F Which is the most covalent?

9 1.The bond with the smaller cation is the more covalent bond 2.The bond with the larger anion is the more covalent bond 3.The bond with the larger charge on the cation or anion is the more covalent bond 4.The bond with a transition metal cation is the more covalent bond Determine the amount of covalent or ionic character in a bond Fajan’s Rules of Covalency

10 Predict which is the more covalent A)SbCl 3 B)BiCl 3 C)BeO D)BeS E)Tl 2 O F)Tl 2 O 3 G)NaCl H)CuCl Sb is smaller than Bi, so the SbCl 3 is more covalent S is larger than O, so the BeS is more covalent Compare Tl + and Tl +3, thallium(III) oxide more covalent Cu is a transition metal, CuCl more covalent

11 Which is the Most Covalent? A)MgCl 2 B)MgBr 2 C)CaCl 2 D)CaBr 2

12 Which is the Most Covalent? A)MgCl 2 B)MgBr 2 C)CaCl 2 D)CaBr 2 Compare: Mg cation and Ca cation. Mg smaller than Ca so Mg compounds more covalent Compare: Cl anion and Br anion. Br larger than Cl, so Br compounds more covalent

13 Which is the Most Ionic? A)MgCl 2 B)MgBr 2 C)CaCl 2 D)CaBr 2

14 Which is the Most Ionic? A)MgCl 2 B)MgBr 2 C)CaCl 2 D)CaBr 2 Most ionic is the same as least covalent Compare: Mg cation and Ca cation. Mg smaller than Ca so Mg compounds more covalent, Ca more ionic Compare: Cl anion and Br anion. Br larger than Cl, so Br compounds more covalent, Cl more ionic

15 Which of the following is least covalent? A)Cu 2 O B)CuO C)Cu 2 S D)CuS

16 Which of the following is least covalent? A)Cu 2 O B)CuO C)Cu 2 S D)CuS Compare anions O and S. S is the larger anion, so it forms more covalent bonds. Therefore, Cu 2 O and CuO are less covalent Cu 2 O is Cu +1, CuO is Cu +2, the larger charge is more covalent, so Cu 2 O is the least covalent

17 Which of the following is least ionic? A)AgCl B)NaCl C)AuCl D)RbCl

18 Which of the following is least ionic? A)AgCl B)NaCl C)AuCl D)RbCl Least ionic is Most covalent Ag and Au are transition metals, so they are more covalent than Na and Rb which are Group 1 Alkali metals. Compare Ag and Au. Ag is the smaller size so it forms the most covalent bond.

19 Bond polarity –Because electrons are shared unequally in a bond due to the difference in electronegativity, a covalent bond has a positive end and a negative end. (poles) –The bond is said to be polar H ---Cl –Bond dipole - occurs when you have a polar bond –Dipole moment (  ) - is a measure of the bond dipole (the amount of polarity) ++ --

20 Bond Polarity –The more ionic the bond the more polar the bond –The more ionic the bond, the larger the bond dipole –The more ionic the bond, the greater the dipole moment.

21 Compare three bonds: A) C--F B) O--FC) N--F Which is the least polar bond?


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